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dsc04062bisonsm
Bison.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Reconstruction, Musée de l'Homme, Paris




dsc04062bisonsm 369 400 europe photos 2018 musee des hommes DSC04062.jpg DSC04063.jpg Bison __________________________ DSC04064.JPG DSC04066.JPG aurochs _________________________ Text for tools DSC04076.JPG DSC04077 DSC04078 general view tools to 4092 - tools including handaxes ___________________ DSC04094 DSC04093 (ff etc including drawings text for wind shelters ___________ 4100 130 000 BP text and image of eagle talons as pendant. Krapina, Croatia to Chatellperonian 4101 more text to 4112 _________________ Original Neanderthal skull DSC04113 ________________ La Quina skull text DSC04114, DSC04115 image DSC04133 to DSC04135 la Quffina H5 skull _____________ DSC04136 to 142 reprise of others above ? and below _______________ St Cesaire woman skull DSC04116 text DSC04117 skull ___________ DSC04118 skull of infant Peche de l'aze DSC04119, DSC04120 ________________ DSC04121 chapelle aux saints skull DSC04122 to DSC04124 _________________ DSC04125 skull infant la quina DSC04126 ___________ Biache st vaast france 180 000 BP DSC04127, 28, 29 _____________________- Moustier 1 recreation DSC04130 to 32 _________________ DSC04133 to DSC04135 la Quina H5 skull to 142 reprise of others above _____________________ DSC04143 various - shell and racloir for example. to DSC04149 ________________ Mousterian biface and mask with bone through it. DSC04150 text to DSC04158 also DSC04180, but 181 looks good. ________________ DSC04161 photos of neanderthal stalactites arranged in cave to DSC04164 __________________ DSC04165 various neanderthal artefacts from various places to 179 ____________________ DSC04182 full skeleton Ferrassie I DSC04183 to 194 ____________________ DSC04195 ferrassie tools to DSC04205 ---------- Spy I skull fragment DSC04206 to 208. Nucleus and flake from Spy 209 to 213 ___________________ DSC04214 Krapina Combe grenal Goyet Belgium to 226 ___________________ DSC04229 Text for Shanidar I and V ____________________ DSC04236.JPG following: Maps and examples across europe. to DSC04261 ___________________________ DSC04263 following: Qafzeh text and artefacts DSC04266 following: Liege skull ______________ DSC04270 following: Engis neanderthal skull, first ever found. _________________ 4271 text for flores 4274 Flores woman by Daynes ______________ 4277 Senegal text _______ 4278 Kebara text _____________ DSC04287 Daynes neanderthal woman modern dress _____________ DSC04288 Orrorin Kenya text ______________ DSC04290 to DSC04298 Sahelanthropus tchadensis 'Toumai' https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/Sahelanthropus_tchadensis_-_TM_266-01-060-1.jpg _____________________ Ardipithecus ramidus text at 4289 DSC04299 to 4301 _________________________ Tools: DSC04326 Levallois point Saint-Just-en-Chaussée, Oise France, Mousterian, middle Paleolithic ___________ DSC04327 néocrête (new ridge?) blade flint Abri de Laussel, Dordogne _________ DSC04328 Racloir, scraper quartzite Sidi Abderrahmane Cunette Morocco Acheulian, middle palaeolithic _____________ DSC04329 Hachereau sur éclat axe made on a flake. Name first used for a tool of this type by Breuil in 1924 Breuil, H. (1924) - « Hache taillée en quartzite », Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, t. 21, pp. 253-254. Rhyolite Tachenghit, Sahara Algeria Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic ___________________ DSC04330 Biface Rhyolite Erg de Tihodaïne, central Sahara Algeria Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic __________________ DSC04331 Hard hammer stone Quartz Sandougne, Dordogne France Mousterian, Middle Palaeolithic ____________________________ DSC04332 Chopper Quartzite sandstone Plateau de Salé Morocco Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic ____________________________ DSC04333 Levallois nucleus / core flint Saint-Just-en-Chaussée, Oise France Mousterian, Middle Palaeolithic ____________________________ DSC04333 Levallois nucleus / core Saint-Just-en-Chaussée, Oise France Mousterian, Middle Palaeolithic ____________________________ DSC04334 Reconstruction of a nucleus / core river pebble Lorrez-le-Bocage, Seine-et_Marne France Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic ____________________________ DSC04348 Levallois point flint Saint-Pierre-les-Elbeufs, Seine-maritime France Middle Palaeolithic ____________________________ DSC04349 Levallois point flint Saint-Just-en-Chaussée, Oise France Mousterian, Middle Palaeolithic France Mousterian, Middle Palaeolithic ____________________________ DSC04350 Levallois point Ain Arouss Syria Mousterian, Middle Palaeolithic ____________________________ DSC04351 Double racloir / scraper, with a scraping edge on each side of the tool. Le Mesnil-Esnard, Seine-Maritime France Middle Palaeolithic ____________________________ DSC04352 Racloir/scraper on a levallois flake. flint Grotte des Cottés, Saint-Pierre-de-Maille, Vienne, France France Middle Palaeolithic ____________________________ DSC04353 Polishing stone flint Abri de Laussel, Dordogne France Gravettian, upper Palaeolithic ____________________________ DSC04354 Polishing stone flint France Gravettian, upper Palaeolithic ____________________________ DSC04355 Blade with ridges flint Abri de Laussel, Dordogne France Gravettian, upper Palaeolithic ____________________________ DSC04356 (left) Blade with ridges flint Grotte de Peyrat, Dordogne France Magdalenian, upper Palaeolithic (right) Blade with ridges flint Abri de Laussel, Dordogne France Gravettian, upper Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04357 DSC04357levallois (left) Retouched Levallois blade flint Saint-Just-en-Chaussée, Oise, France Mousterian, Middle Palaeolithic (Right) Levallois blade flint Saint-Just-en-Chaussée, Oise, France Mousterian, Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04358biface2 (left) Biface handaxe flint Ballastieère de Saint-Audebert, Somme, France Acheulean, Middle Palaeolithic (Right) Biface handaxe flint Saint-Just-en-Chaussée, Oise, France France Mousterian, Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04359 (left) biface hand axe flint Saint-Acheul, Somme, France Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic (right) biface hand axe Rhyolite Erg de Tihodaïne, Sahara Algeria Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04360 biface hand axe Micaceous sandstone Uganda Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04361 (left) biface oval hand axe Flint Leugny, Yonne, France Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic (right) Biface hand axe with the base unworked. Quartz Erg de Tihodaïne, Central Sahara, Algeria, Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04362 (left) biface hand axe Quartzite sandstone Erg de Tihodaïne, Central Sahara, Algeria, Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic (right) Biface hand axe, Micoquian lanceolate shape, Rhyolite Erg de Tihodaïne, Central Sahara, Algeria, Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04363 (left) biface hand axe Flint Saint-Piat, Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic (right) Biface hand axe, Obsidian Gamble's Cave Kenya, Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic (probably from the Louis Leakey collection, who discovered the site of Gamble's Cave amongst others) see: http://archaeopress.com/Public/download.asp?id=%7BB9FCCFEE-35AF-4C45-AD09-79123DDF92DD%7D ______________________ DSC04364 (left) Hachereau sur éclat Axe made on a flake. Name first used for a tool of this type by Breuil in 1924 Breuil, H. (1924) - « Hache taillée en quartzite », Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, t. 21, pp. 253-254. Patinated Basaltic rock Erg de Tihodaïne, Central Sahara, Algeria, Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic (right) Hachereau Rhyolite Erg de Tihodaïne, Central Sahara, Algeria, Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04365 Hachereau Rhyolite Erg de Tihodaïne, Central Sahara, Algeria Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04366 (left) Hachereau Rhyolite Erg de Tihodaïne, Central Sahara, Algeria Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic (right) Hachereau Rhyolite Erg de Tihodaïne, Central Sahara, Algeria Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04367 (left) Hammer stone, Quartz, La Quina, Charente, France Mousterian, Middle Palaeolithic (right) Chopping tool Fossil wood, Chauk, Myanmar Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04368 Chopper Quartzite Sidi Abderrahmane Cunette, Morocco Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04369 Chopper Fossil wood Chauk, Myanmar Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC043670 Double chopper Fossil wood Chauk, Myanmar Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04371 Hammer stone Sandougne, Dordogne, France Mousterian, Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04372 Chopping tool River stone France Mousterian, Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04373 Chopping tool Quartzite Sidi Abderrahmane Cunette, Morocco, Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04374 Chopping tool Quartzite Sidi Abderrahmane Cunette, Morocco, Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04375 Chopping tool Quartzite Sidi Abderrahmane Cunette, Morocco, Acheulian, Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04376 Chopper Haute-Garonne, France, Lower Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04377 Chopper Haute-Garonne, France, Lower Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04378 (left and right) Chopping tool Quartzite Sidi Abderrahmane Cunette, Morocco, Middle Palaeolithic ______________________ DSC04384 Engraved baguette demi-ronde Reindeer antler Laugerie Basse Dordogne, France ______________________ DSC04385 NB see http://www.donsmaps.com/batons2.html C. Kilgore examining a perforated bâton from Laugerie-Basse, LesEyzies-de-Tayac, Dordogne, France. Coll. de Vibraye, 38.189.1264. MH/MNHN. Engraved pierced baton Reindeer antler Laugerie Basse Dordogne, France Below from: http://cabinetdecuriosites3d.mnhn.fr/fr/content/baton-perc%C3%A9 Inventory number: MNHN 38.189.1264 This object of a little over twenty centimeters in length was discovered in the Laugerie Basse shelter, the famous Paleolithic site of Eyzies De Tayac-Sireuil, Dordogne. It was carved in a reindeer antler in the Magdalenian (about 15,000 years ago). Deer woods are bone structures, vascularized, that fall and grow back every year. In reindeer, males and females carry wood. These pierced sticks of the Paleolithic, engraved with abstract or animal motifs and having a circular hole and one or two ends in the shape of "T" or "Y", are known in several tens of copies. Yet their function is still unknown. Many hypotheses about the use of these pierced sticks have been issued, the most discussed of which are: symbol of power or representative of a status (stick of command); scallop straightener (the heated spear was inserted into the hole and then straightened); thruster of spearheads; element intended to stretch the skins or to block heavy loads; spinning wheel for making ropes; sling handle; "Brake handle" when lassoing large game; friction producing hand grip; or fishing tool, modeled on the small fishing rods of the Inuit and still used in the east of Russia. Visualization of the internal structures of reindeer antler allows to better understand the carving techniques used in the Magdalenian, to highlight the zones of internal constraints to test the hypotheses of use (thruster, straightener of spearheads, fishing rod, etc.). ), and to identify the fragilities of the object for a restoration diagnosis. ______________________________________ DSC04386 #6 pierced baton reindeer antler la Madeleine, Dordogne, France ______________________________ DSC04388 to 90 (see 87 for text) engraving of a mammoth mammoth ivory circa 15 000 BP la Madeleine, Dordogne, France _____________________ DSC04396, 97 unknown Possibly one of #1, painted pebbles (see 94 for text) ______________________________ DSC04396 fat lamp sandstone La Chaire à Calvin Mouthiers-sur-Boëme, Charente France ___________________ DSC04399 engraving of a horse on a rib bone. Grotte d'Enlène Montesquieu-Avantès Ariège, France ___________________ DSC04400 Sculpture of a reindeer, on reindeer antler, empaumure palm patch Empaumure is a term of hunting which designates, on the head of a stag, the place where the wood divides into several branches. Grotte d'Enlène Montesquieu-Avantès Ariège, France ___________________ DSC04401 Sculpted head of a horse Reindeer antler, chevillure or third antler. Abri de Laugerie-Basse, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac, Dordogne, France. ______________________________ DSC04402 Contour découpé of a horse Hyoid bone of a horse Abri de Laugerie-Basse, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac, Dordogne, France. ______________________________ DSC04403 Contour découpé of a horse Hyoid bone of a horse Grotte d'Enlène Montesquieu-Avantès Ariège, France ______________________________ DSC04404 Contour découpé of a horse Hyoid bone of a horse Grotte d'Enlène Montesquieu-Avantès Ariège, France ______________________________ DSC04405 Contour découpé of a horse head Hyoid bone of a horse Grotte d'Enlène Montesquieu-Avantès Ariège, France ______________________________ DSC04406 head of a reindeer reindeer antler Abri de Laugerie-Basse, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac, Dordogne, France. ______________________________




References

  1. Adams B., Porat N. , 1996: Imported Pottery with Potmarks from Abydos, In: J. Spencer (ed.), Aspects of Early Egypt, London: British Museum Press, p. 98-107.



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