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Units and stratigraphy from railway cutting section in Western Ravine
Unit and DescriptionInferred environments of deposition
VII. Mid to dark brown clay-siltSlope wash fans grading downslope into pools and puddles under mild climate.
Occasional catastrophic collapses.
VI. Grey brown sandy siltSlope wash fans grading downslope into pools and puddles under mild climate.
Occasional catastrophic collapses.
XI. Dark brown to yellowish brown gravelSlope wash fans grading downslope into pools and puddles under mild climate.
Occasional catastrophic collapses.
V. Mid brown to reddish brown sandy silt to salty sandSlope wash fans grading downslope into pools and puddles under mild climate.
IV. Very dark brown bedded clay–silt and sandy clay–silt.Slope wash fans grading downslope into pools and puddles under mild climate.
III d. Pale yellow–red slightly gravelly sandSlope wash fans grading downslope into pools and puddles under mild climate.
III c. Pale brownish yellow and reddish brown
laminated fine to medium sand
 
III a. Red brown homogenous sandy silt to silty sand 
II. Dark brown very coarse to medium sandSlope wash fans grading downslope into pools and puddles under mild climate.
X. Reddish brown gravelSlope wash fans grading downslope into pools and puddles under mild climate.
IX. Mid brown clay–silt with some sand
Very poorly sorted, clast-supported gravel
Slope wash fans grading downslope into pools and puddles under mild climate.
Freeze–thaw dominating in cold environment with collapse of rock walls/roof

Table above: Bates et al. (2013)


Tools and other artefacts

Almost half of the tools were found during the 1955 campaign.

                                                Tools                                                
DescriptionTotal
Bifaces (Hand Axes)119
Flat, discoidal tools429
Blades with flattened faces1 569
Points141
Quartz tools437
Archaic technique545
Scraper-knives274
Backed knives, cutting blades2 738
Blades with a triangular cross-section2 064
Scrapers, all types2 752
Hammers and hatchets, granite563
Hammers, schist and dolerite313
Hammers, quartzite242
Special tools636
Total12 822

                                        Other artefacts                                        
DescriptionTotal
Core / nucleus1 251
Flaked pebbles163
Used flakes4 651
Shards, waste, debitage (approximated by weight)30 300
Total36 329




                                                Tools                                                
DescriptionTotal
1953
%
1953
Total
1952
%
1952
Bifaces (Hand Axes)17 0.5 48 7.9
Flat flake implements112 3.3 76 12.4
Cutting blades and tools866 25.4 32 5.2
Ribbed (or keeled) blades663 19.5 73 11.9
Flattened blades450 13.2 75 12.2
Scrapers (all types)723 21.2 52 8.4
Points55 1.6 47 7.7
Granite choppers and cleavers121 3.6 14 2.3
Quartz choppers108 [3.2] 76 12.4
Shale, Dolerite, etc. choppers33 1.0 25 4.3
Quartzite cleavers63 1.9 25 4.3
Implements of archaic technique192 5.6 67 11.0
Total3 403 610 

                                        Other artefacts                                        
DescriptionTotal
1953
Total
1952
Nuclei (Flaked cores)42950
Utilized flakes1 318377
Chips and wasteover 10 000ca 800






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