La Grotte de la Forêt
Location of la Grotte de la Forêt.
To the north may be seen the major bridge over the Vézère and the cliffs of la Roque Saint-Christophe to the east of the bridge, while to the west of la Grotte de la Forêt is a minor bridge over the Vézère.
Photo: © 2017, CNES / Airbus, DigitalGlobe, via http://www.monumentum.fr/grotte-foret-pa00083041.html
Plan of la Grotte de la Forêt.
Latitude: 44.976835N Longitude: 1.056051E
Topographic survey: N. Aujoulat, T. Baricaud and B. Bitard.
Left wall before the narrowing: No. 1, not very interpretable.
Panel A (in widening):
No. 2: reindeer.
No. 3: sign
No. 4: reindeer or horse.
No. 5: reindeer
No. 6: reindeer
No. 7: ibex
No. 8: horse.
No. 9: horse
No. 10: horse.
No. 11: feline
No. 12: horse.
Photo and text: Leroi-Gourhan (1984)
The text below has been translated and adapted from Leroi-Gourhan (1984)
The small Grotte de la Forêt lies between Moustier and Tursac. It is at the junction of the valley of Fontpeyrine and the Vézère, between the cliffs of Reignac upstream and Lespinasse downstream. The entrance is set back from National Road 706, and is a hollow at the foot of a limestone cliff of low height, concealed by a great deal of vegetation.
Near this cave are a number of other important archaeological sites, including l'Abri du Facteur, Tursac, la Madeleine, le Ruth, Abri Cellier, and le Moustier.
Physical description of the cave
It is a small cave, about twenty metres long, and follows the path of a vertical fault. The presence of narrow sections of the cave makes progress and access to the engravings difficult. An ancient concretion covers the walls and niches of the first two thirds of the cave.
The axial gallery, oriented north-west-south-east, is nearly rectangular. From the vestibule of the entrance, cluttered with rocky blocks detached from the roof of the shelter, two impracticable passages leave to the side.
A few metres from this point, the corridor divides into three branches: two are impenetrable, the left makes it possible to access a local widening of the fracture.
The final passage narrows before the engravings, and is just as difficult to cross. A room follows, split into two regions by a rockfall. The figures are on the right-hand wall at the entrance of the narrow passageway, and on the left-hand wall at the southeast end of the gallery.
At this point, we are 17 metres from the entrance. Beneath the cornice with engravings, a narrow section connects the main axis of the cave with a lateral extension whose accessibility has been reduced by an undesirable obstruction. Nothing indicates that it was frequented by prehistoric man.
The History of the Discovery
The discovery of the engravings of this cavity is due to D. Le Dren. During the summer of 1952, a speleological survey in the region of Tursac led him to explore the numerous cavities hollowed out in the cliffs of this region. After entering the cave, after a painful crawl he reached the figure of the first reindeer, the most important parietal creature. In the company of Abbé Jardel, Abbé A. Glory traced these engravings on April 22, 1953, and in the process discovered several other graphics.
Two engraved reindeer from la Grotte de la Forêt.
Each shows a distinct line of markings on the coat, formed in this case by engraving into the surface, and now known as Pepper's patches.
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Facsimile, le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Virtually all descriptions of coat colour in Rangifer fail to mention a series of light-coloured patches or short vertical stripes that occur on the dorso-lateral or lateral surface of the thorax and lumbar regions and as irregular blotches on the upper lateral surface of the rump or hip region. These are not patches of worn pelage, breaks in the pelage over individual ribs, nor lumps and discoloured fur caused by subcutaneous warble larvae or their scars. These 'Pepper's patches' consist of longer, stiffer hairs, sometimes twisted and of a lighter colour than the surrounding fur, from which they are sharply differentiated.Text above: Pruitt and Pepper (1986)
Fragment of a split rib. Length 108 mm, width 32 mm, from Le Morin.
( This and other examples of Palaeolithic art show that the hunters were well aware of these markings on mostly young and female reindeer - Don )
Photo and text: Deffarge et al. (1975)
This pendant from Laugerie-Basse has been engraved with the hindquarters of a reindeer cow. Note the line of decorative notches carved along the flanks of the animal.
Label: Pendeloque gravée, Laugerie-Basse, Fouilles Hardy, Pr.A. 1902
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Musée d’art et d’archéologie du Périgord, Périgueux
a. Rangifer t. tarandus. ♀. Whipsnade Zoo. Sketch by H.P. (Hubert Pepper), 1982.
b. 'Grinding ochre and painting frescoes on rock'. Redrawn by H.P. from Breuil (1949)
c. Reindeer engraved on bone, Massât; Ariège, France. Musée Ste. Germaine, Paris. Sketch by H.P.
d. Reindeer sculptured in ivory; Bruniquel. British Museum, London. Redrawn by H.P. from Graziosi (1960)
e. Reindeer carved on antler spear-thrower; Arudy. Musée Ste. Germaine, Paris. Redrawn by H.P. from Graziosi (1960)
f. Rock wall painting; Les Trois Frères, near Montesguion, Arantés, Ariège, France. Redrawn by H.P. from Leroi-Gourhan (1968)
g. Female reindeer on 'bâton de commandment'; Laugerie Basse. Redrawn by H.P. from Graziosi (1960)
h. 'Spotted Reindeer'; La Mouthe. Redrawn by H.P. from Breuil (1952)
Photo and text: Pruitt and Pepper (1986)
- Deffarge R., Laurent P., de Sonneville-Bordes D., 1974: Ciseaux ou lissoirs magdaleniens, Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française. Comptes rendus des séances mensuelles , Year 1974 Volume 71 Issue 3 pp. 85-96
- Deffarge R., Laurent P., de Sonneville-Bordes D., 1975: Art mobilier du Magdalénien supérieur de l'Abri Morin à Pessac-sur-Dordogne (Gironde), Gallia préhistoire, Tome 18 fascicule 1, 1975. pp. 1-64.
- Géroudet P., 1965: Les Rapaces diurnes et nocturnes d'Europe, Université Lumière-Lyon 2, Delachaux & Niestlé, 6ème édition (1984), Paris, 426 p.
- Gourichon L., 1994: Les Harfangs (Nyctea scandiaca L. du gisement madgalénien du Morin (Gironde), Université Lumière-Lyon 2, Master's Thesis, 1994
- Leroi-Gourhan A., 1984: L'Art des cavernes : Atlas des grottes ornées paléolithiques françaises, Relié – 1 décembre 1984
- Maligne M., Langlais J., Barshay-Szmidt C., 2012: Des restes de chiens magdaléniens à l’abri du Morin (Gironde, France). Implications socio-économiques d’une innovation zootechnique, PALEO, 23 / 2012, pp. 39-54.
- Pruitt W., Pepper H., 1986: 'Pepper's patches' on Rangifer pelage, Rangifer, Special Issue No. 1, 1986
- Saachi D., 1972: Une Curieuse gravure d'oiseau dans le gisement magdalenien de Belvis (Aude), Zephyrus, 7S-4: 189-192.
- Vrba E., Schaller G., 2000: Antelopes, Deer, and Relatives: Fossil Record, Behavioral Ecology, Systematics, and Conservation, Yale University Press