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Ancient Egyptian culture from the 18th Dynasty to the end of the 20th Dynasty,
the New Kingdom, in 1077 BC, at the end of the reign of Ramesses XI.



Egyptian Chronology


Egyptian Chronology
      Date          Culture          Duration     
11 000 BC Jebel Sahaba  
Before 8 000 BC - Palaeolithic in Europe and Northern Asia
8 000 BC - Nominal end of the Ice Age
8 600 - 4 400 BC Nabta Playa Neolithic 4 200 years
6 100 - 5 180 BC    Qarunian (formerly known as Fayum B)     920 years
5 200 - 4 200 BC Fayum A 1 000 years
4 800 - 4 200 BC Merimde 600 years
4 600 - 4 400 BC El Omari 200 years
4 400 - 4 000 BC Badarian 400 years
4 000 - 3 300 BC Maadi 700 years
4 000 - 3 500 BC Naqada I 500 years
3 500 - 3 200 BC Naqada II 300 years
3 200 - 3 100 BC Naqada III 100 years
3 100 - 2 670 BC Early Dynastic 586 years
2 670 - 2 181 BC Old Kingdom 505 years
2 181 - 2 025 BC First Intermediate Period 156 years
2 025 - 1 700 BC Middle Kingdom 325 years
1 700 - 1 550 BC Second Intermediate Period 150 years
1 550 - 1 077 BC New Kingdom 473 years
1 077 - 664 BC Third Intermediate Period 413 years
664 - 525 BC Late Period 139 years
525 - 404 BC First Persian Period 121 years
404 - 343 BC Late Dynastic Period 61 years
343 - 332 BC Second Persian Period 11 years
332 - 305 BC Macedonian Period 27 years
305 - 30 BC Ptolemaic Period 275 years
30 BC - 395 AD Roman Period 425 years
395 AD - 640 AD Byzantine Period 245 years
640 AD - 1517 AD Islamic Period 877 years
1517 AD - 1867 AD Ottoman Period
(French Occupation 1798-1801)
350 years
1867 AD - 1914 AD Khedival Period 47 years
1914 AD - 1922 AD Sultanate under Hussein Kamel,
as a British Protectorate
8 years
1922 AD - 1953 AD Monarchy 31 years
1953 AD - Present Day Republic  


Table of dates for the history of Egypt, adapted from various sources.



First to Twentieth Dynasties
Date Dynasty Period Duration
(years)
3 100 - 2 890 BC First Dynasty Archaic/Early Dynastic Period 214
2 890 - 2 670 BC Second Dynasty Archaic/Early Dynastic Period 220
2 670 - 2 613 BC Third Dynasty Old Kingdom 57
2 613 - 2 494 BC Fourth Dynasty Old Kingdom - Golden Age 119
2 494 - 2 345 BC Fifth Dynasty Old Kingdom 149
2 345 - 2 181 BC Sixth Dynasty Old Kingdom 164
2 181 - 2 160 BC Seventh and Eighth Dynasties First Intermediate Period 21
2 160 - 2 134 BC Ninth and Tenth Dynasties First Intermediate Period 26
2 134 - 1 991 BC Eleventh Dynasty Middle Kingdom 43
1 991 - 1 802 BC Twelfth Dynasty Middle Kingdom 189
1 802 - 1 649 BC Thirteenth Dynasty
From Memphis, over Middle and Upper Egypt
Middle Kingdom 153
1 805 - 1 650 BC Fourteenth Dynasty
From Avaris, Nile Delta, over Lower Egypt
Second Intermediate Period 155
1 650 - 1 550 BC Fifteenth Dynasty
First Hyksos dynasty, ruled from Avaris,
without control of the entire land
Second Intermediate Period 100
1 649 - 1 582 BC Sixteenth Dynasty
Ruled the Theban region in Upper Egypt
The Hyksos ruled the delta
The Kingdom of Kush ruled Upper Egypt
Second Intermediate Period 67
1 580 - 1 550 BC Seventeenth Dynasty
Ruled Thebes, Hyksos ruled the delta
Second Intermediate Period / New Kingdom 30
1 543 - 1 292 BC Eighteenth Dynasty
Egypt reaches the peak of its power
New Kingdom 251
1 292 - 1 187 BC Nineteenth Dynasty
Conquests in Canaan
New Kingdom 105
1 187 - 1 077 BC Twentieth Dynasty End of the New Kingdom 110


Table of dates for the First to Twentieth Dynasties, from various sources, mostly via Wikipedia


Early Egypt timeline

Timeline for early Egypt, from 11 000 BC to 2 500 BC.

Photo: Poster, British Museum © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015







The Eighteenth Dynasty

1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

The eighteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XVIII) is the best known ancient Egyptian dynasty. It boasts several of Egypt's most famous pharaohs, including Tutankhamun, whose tomb was found by Howard Carter in 1922. The dynasty is also known as the Thutmosid Dynasty for the four pharaohs named Thutmose (English: Thoth bore him).

Famous pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII include Hatshepsut (circa 1 479 BC - 1 458 BC), longest-reigning woman-pharaoh of an indigenous dynasty, and Akhenaten (circa 1 353 BC - 1 336 BC), the 'heretic pharaoh', with his queen, Nefertiti.

Dynasty XVIII is the first of the three dynasties of the Egyptian New Kingdom, the period in which ancient Egypt reached the peak of its power.




Eighteenth Dynasty
Name Horus (Throne) Name Consort Burial Years Dates Comments
Ahmose I
(Amasis I)
Nebpehtire Ahmose-Nefertari
Ahmose-Henuttamehu
Ahmose-Sitkamose
  25 1 550 BC - 1 525 BC The warrior king Ahmose, founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty, vanquished the foreign Hyksos rulers, reunited Egypt, and initiated the New Kingdom.
Amenhotep I Djeserkare Ahmose-Meritamon KV39? or Tomb ANB? 22 1 525 BC - 1 503 BC  
Thutmose I Akheperkare Ahmose
Mutnofret
KV20, KV38 10 1 503 BC - 1 493 BC  
Thutmose II Akheperenre Hatshepsut
Iset
KV42? 14 1 493 BC - 1 479 BC  
Queen Hatshepsut Maatkare Thutmose II KV20 21 1 479 BC - 1 458 BC Hatshepsut ruled jointly with Thutmose III, who had ascended to the throne the previous year as a child of about two years old. Hatshepsut was the chief wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III's father.
Thutmose III Menkheper(en)re Satiah
Merytre-Hatshepsut
Nebtu
Menhet, Menwi and Merti
KV34 54 1 479 BC - 1 425 BC  
Amenhotep II Akheperure Tiaa KV35 27 1 425 BC - 1 398 BC  
Thutmose IV Menkheperure Nefertari
Iaret
Mutemwiya
Daughter of Artatama I of Mitanni
KV43 10 1 398 BC - 1 388 BC  
Amenhotep III Nebmaatre Tiye
Gilukhipa of Mitanni
Tadukhipa of Mitanni
Sitamun
Iset
Daughter of KurigalzuI I
of Babylon
Daughter of Kadashman-Enlil of Babylon
Daughter of Tarhundaradu of Arzawa
Daughter of the ruler of Ammia
KV22 38 1 388 BC - 1 350 BC Amenhotep's father, Tuthmosis IV, left his son an empire of immense size, wealth, and power. He was only twelve years old when he came to the throne and married Tiye in a royal ceremony. He was a master of diplomacy, who placed other nations in his debt through lavish gifts of gold so that they would be inclined to bend to his wishes, which they invariably did.
Amenhotep IV/
Akhenaten
Neferkepherure-Waenre Nefertiti
Kiya
Tadukhipa of Mitanni
Daughter of Šatiya, ruler of Enišasi
Meritaten?
Meketaten?
Ankhesenamun
Daughter of Burna-Buriash II, King
of Babylon
Royal Tomb
of Akhenaten
17 1 351 BC - 1 334 BC  
Smenkhkare Ankhkheperure Meritaten   1 1 335 BC - 1 334 BC  
Neferneferuaten Ankhkheperure Akhenaten?
Smenkhkare?
  2 1 334 BC - 1 332 BC  
Tutankhamun Nebkheperure Ankhesenamun KV62 9 1 332 BC - 1 323 BC  
Ay Kheperkheperure Ankhesenamun
Tey
KV23 4 1 323 BC - 1 319 BC  
Horemheb Djeserkheperure-Setepenre Mutnedjmet
Amenia
KV57 27 1 319 BC - 1 292 BC  


Table of Eighteenth Dynasty Rulers, data chiefly from Wikipedia, with some text from Joshua J. Mark, at http://www.ancient.eu/Amenhotep_III/




DSC00851ahmoseshabtism
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Ahmose I


Limestone shabti of King Ahmose: the features on this small face hark back to royal Theban sculpture of the early Middle Kingdom. Its face is tapered, and the eyebrows and upper contours of the eyes are strongly arched. There are seven rows of incised hieroglyphic text at waist-level. The foot of this shabti is damaged. Circa 1 550 BC - 1 525 BC

Dimensions: Height 289 mm, width 82 mm, depth 65 mm.

Incised in seven lines at the waist, an inscription gives Ahmose's names in cartouches, followed by the 'shabti spell', Spell 6 in the 'Book of the Dead'.

This shabti is an important historical document in its own right, for it is one of only three surviving representations of the warrior king Ahmose, founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty, who vanquished the foreign Hyksos rulers, reunited Egypt, and initiated the New Kingdom. Presumably this figure comes from his tomb, which is believed to have been at Thebes, but which has not been located. This is also the oldest known royal shabti.

Catalog: Limestone, Thebes, EA32191
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


DSC06146ahmosesm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Ahmose I


Stele of Pharaoh Ahmose I, circa 1 535 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, Thebes, Inv. Nr. 1935.200.209

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




   mask
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Ahmose I / Ahmose-Turi


Lower half of a sandstone seated statue of Ahmose-Turi from Kerma, Circa 1530 BC.

Ahmose-Turi was viceroy of Kush under Pharaohs Amenhotep I and Thutmose I.


The hieroglyphic inscription on the sides of the throne invoke the gods Osiris, Horus Lord of Buhen and Dedwen (a native Nubian god), and gives the names of Ahmose' s parents.

Abyssinia, or Ethiopia, was known as Kush to the ancient Egyptians.

Catalog: EA1279
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


DSC06036stelesm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Pharaoh Amenhotep I

Small stele with Pharaoh Amenhotep I in front of the god Ptah sacrificing.

Reign of Amenhotop 1,  524 BC - 1 503 BC.

The Pharaoh (right), who can be identified by his cartouche, hands with both hands (wine) vessels to the god 'Ptah, perfect in face, the Lord of truth'. In return to Pharaoh, the god (hieroglyphics between the two) says: 'I give (you) power of guidance'.

Catalog: Limestone

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




In the late Eighteenth Dynasty a new sort of anthropoid coffin came into use alongside the black-painted type. By the reign of Ramses II the new type had superseded the older.

The ground was yellow, with decorations in red, light blue and dark blue, all covered by a varnish that has darkened over time and changed the blues to greens. The new scheme imitated gold and coloured inlay, and exceptional coffins used gold rather than paint. It became normal to show the forearms crossed on the chest underneath the elaborate collar through which the hands protrude. Women's hands were usually depicted open and men's clenched, holding amulets.

Below the collar a kneeling figure of the goddess Nut spreads her wings in protection. On the lower part of the lid the spaces between the bands of text show the deceased and deities, burial rites, and various scenes taken from the decorative repertory of tomb chapels. On the case Thoth and the four sons of Horus are still depicted.

Traditionally the coffin showed the deceased in an idealised form wearing the divine three part wig, and, if male, the long beard associated with male gods.
Text above from Robins (2008)



coffin of Taiuy coffin of Taiuy
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Taiuy


Wooden anthropoid coffin of Taiuy.

Painted detail on plaster including rishi-pattern and hieroglyphic text.

Early 18th Dynasty, circa 1 550 BC - 1 500 BC. Sycomore fig coffin in the Rishi style, inscribed for the lady Taiuwy. From Birabi, Thebes / Luxor, intrusive burial in tomb 41.

This coffin was prefabricated, and the owner's name was inserted into a blank space in the central inscription. The large painted wings possibly represent those of protective godesses, or may derive from the decoration of masks of the Second Intermediate period.

In this late example of the Rishi style, the striped wig and transverse bands foreshadow the design of the classic 18th Dynasty coffins.

Catalog: EA54350
Photo (left): ©Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Photo (right): Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




dsc06585thutmoseiism
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Thutmose II


Temple relief showing Pharoah Thutmose II in front of an offering table, circa 1 480 BC

Found at Deir el-Bahari, a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. This is a part of the Theban Necropolis.

Catalog: Limestone, Deir el-Bahari, Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Hatchepsut, ÄM 1623
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin
Additional text: Wikipedia




dsc07697thehuntsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Hunting scene

Two hounds have pulled down a scimitar-horned oryx.

Limestone, ÄM 31200

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




DSC06057baketsm DSC06058baketsm


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Baket

Two seated figures of Baket, circa 1 500 BC

In the inscription it says that Baket is to be supplied by speech offerings in the hereafter. Her posture corresponds to the relief of Dschefanesut (Jefanesut): Baket also holds one hand in front of her chest and the other is lying on her thigh and 'reaches' for offerings before her, but these are only mentioned in the inscription on her seat and are not really placed in front of her.

The statuettes were donated to Baket 'by her brother (i.e. husband), Aman-wen-her, who (always) keeps her name alive' and thus she will be eternal in the hereafter.

(left) Height 136 mm, width 51 mm, depth 94 mm.

Catalog: Limestone, painted, Thebes, (left) Inv. Nr. 1935.200.107
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




   Kerma
Kerma was the capital city of the Kerma Culture, which was located in present-day Sudan at least 5500 years ago. Kerma is one of the largest archaeological sites in ancient Nubia. It has produced decades of extensive excavations and research, including thousands of graves and tombs and the residential quarters of the main city surrounding the Western/Lower Deffufa.


Around 3 000 BC, a cultural tradition began around Kerma. It was a large urban centre that was built around a large adobe temple known as the Western Deffufa.

Photo: Lassi via Wikipedia
Permission: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International, 3.0 Unported, 2.5 Generic, 2.0 Generic and 1.0 Generic license
Text: Adapted from Wikipedia




sandstone stela
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Amenhotep I


Sandstone stela dated to Year 8 of Pharaoh Amenhotep I, from Qasr Ibrim, circa 1 530 BC.

The scene shows the king making offerings to the god Horus of Miam (modern-day Aniba). He is accompanied by his mother, Queen Ahmose-Nefertary, and a second royal female, possibly his wife Queen Merytamun (whose name appears to have been excised and later inaccurately restored as Ahmose-Nefertary).

Below is a hieroglyphic text boasting of the power of the pharaoh over foreign lands.

Catalog: EA1835
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


DSC06143statueprocessionsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Statue Procession

Thutmose III, circa 1 479 BC


The Opet Festival became a mainstream festival in the early New Kingdom (circa 1 539 BC - 1 075 BC) when the 18th dynasty came to power, after driving out the Hyksos invaders who had occupied the northern part of the Nile Valley for 200 years.

Egypt's new rulers wasted no time in making its capital city Thebes a vast ceremonial stage to celebrate the consolidation of power, and the Opet festival took centre stage. During the reign of Thutmose III (1 479 BC - 1 425 BC), the festival lasted for 11 days. As part of this festival, when the Nile flooded, the statues of the gods were carried from Karnak to Luxor.

Catalog: Limestone, Thebes, Deir el-Bahan, Inv. Nr. 1935.200.200
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover
Additional text: Escolano-Poveda (2019), via Wikipedia




Mentechenu Mentechenu



Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Mentechenu


Mentechenu, an official from the time of Amenhotep II, was ' the Captain of the Guard at the gate of the royal palaces ', with the honorary rank of ' wrist-bearer on the right hand of the king '. As a sign of his rank he holds a small ostrich feather in his left hand. Another of his titles is 'Fanbearer of the King'. He is dressed in a long robe, which shows the right breast above the waist.

Around his neck Mentechenu wears two chains of golden rings, the so-called ' gold of bravery '. This award may indicate that he was a career officer, although the inscriptions only cite the official titles from his civilian career. It was customary, however, to appoint officers who had been discharged from the service into the state or priestly administrative apparatus. The inscriptions characterise the portrait as a temple figure.

Height 830 mm, circa 1 450 BC - 1 425 BC.

Catalog: Granodiorite, Thebes - Karnak, ÄM 19289
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




DSC09650senenmutstatuesm DSC09648senenmutsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Senenmut


Kneeling figure of the architect Senenmut holding a symbol of the goddess Hathor

New Kingdom, circa 1 470 BC

Catalog: Granite, Armant, ÄS 6265
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




painted stela
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Thutmose III


Part of a painted limestone stela with Pharaoh Thutmose III making offerings to the god Horus, who will have been depicted on the missing left side of the stone.

From Wadi Halfa, circa 1 470 BC.

Catalog: EA1021
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Hatshepsut
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Queen Hatshepsut


Temple sculpture of Hatshepsut, sitting on a throne with close-fitting dress and king's headscarf, circa 1 473 - 1 458 BC.

Dimensions: 57 x 41 x 30 cm (torso); 170 x 41 x 90 (whole sculpture); circa 600 kg (after reconstruction); weight with box: 967 kg.

Hatshepsut ruled jointly with Thutmose III, who had ascended to the throne the previous year as a child of about two years old. Hatshepsut was the chief wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III's father.

Hatshepsut is one of the rare ruling queens of ancient Egypt. This image shows her with the royal head cloth (nemes). This sculpture was originally with about two hundred others in Hatshepsut's mortuary temple in Thebes.

All sculptures were removed from it and smashed by Hatshepsut's stepson, Thutmose III, once he alone was the Pharoah. The torso of this sculpture ended up in the RMO, and the head and the lower half at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. It was not until 1998 that the parts were joined together, 3 500 years after they separated.


Catalog: Pink granite, F 1928 / 9.2
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden, http://www.rmo.nl/




DSC09644hatensheputsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Hatshepsut


Head from a statue of the queen Hatshepsut as Pharaoh, wearing the royal headdress.

New Kingdom, circa 1 460 BC

Catalog: Pink granite, ÄS 5900
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




Hatshepsut
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Queen Hatshepsut


Head of a statue of Hatshepsut or of King Thumose III, circa 1 460 - 1 450 BC.

Catalog: Carbonatite (?), ÄM 34431
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin




dsc06631hatshepsutsm dsc06632hatshepsutsm


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Queen Hatshepsut


Kneeling figure of Queen Hatshepsut with Nemset jug, a cultic vessel, circa 1 475 BC.

Dimensions: 870 x 370 x 570 mm

Hatshepsut was one of the few women to rise to the throne as Pharaoh. She was the daughter of King Thutmose I and the wife of her half-brother Thutmose II, who died at an early age, and she was the regent for the government affairs for her husband's son Thutmose III, who was born to a co-wife and was a minor when he ascended the throne.

Probably in the 7th year of her reign, she was crowned king. She justified her claim to rule with her election by the imperial god Amun. In the terraced mortuary temple built by her favourite in Deir el-Bahari, she had the legend of her divine birth depicted in a relief sequence.

Their over 20-year reign was peaceful, with an outstanding event being the sending of an expedition to the legendary incense land of Punt. ( The Land of Punt was an ancient kingdom. A trading partner of Egypt, it was known for producing and exporting gold, aromatic resins, blackwood, ebony, ivory and wild animals. Its exact location is not known - Don )

After Hatshepsut assumed rule as Pharaoh, she was now presented as such, ie as a man. As a king with the prescribed ceremonial clothing with a bare torso, royal headscarf, ceremonial beard and short apron, she kneels before the god and presents him with a water jug, on the front of which is the symbol for 'duration, permanence'. Nevertheless, the artist understood how to include feminine features on the queen's face. They radiate youthfulness through the gentle curvature of the face shape, the curved eyebrows, the large eyes and the graceful mouth. The liveliness is emphasised by the black painting of the eyes and brows. The figure is part of a series of similar portraits from the Queen's Temple.

Catalog: Pink granite, painted, Western Thebes, Deir el Bahari, ÄM 22883
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin http://www.smb-digital.de/ , (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)-->
Additional text: Wikipedia




img_2283wallsm


img_2284wallsm


dsc06589reliefsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Fragments of reliefs from the tomb of Hatshepsut: Egyptian soldiers and Nubian mercenaries, circa 1470 BC.


The tomb of Hatshepsut dates from the 18th dynasty and is the best preserved temple in Deir el-Bahari on the west bank of the Nile at Thebes.

(top, ÄM 18542) 315 x 425 x 65 mm.

The relief comes from the Temple of Queen Hatshepsut in Deir el-Bahari and shows a series of soldiers who are participating in a procession. They are armed with throwing sticks and axes, and carry olive branches. One of the soldiers holds a standard, on which decorated horses are to be seen, and which indicates the troop the men are part of.


(middle, ÄM 14507), 330 x 585 mm

(bottom, ÄM 14141) The soldiers in this panel are armed with axes and bows and arrows.

Catalog: Painted Limestone, ÄM 18542, ÄM 14507, ÄM 14141
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, F. Seyfried at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




menatcompletesm

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Complete Menat


Reign of Amenhotep III, circa 1 390 BC – 1 353 BC.


A menat necklace consists of a heavy, keyhole-shaped counterpoise (menat) and many strands of beads. Although the necklace is sometimes shown being worn, it was more often carried by females participating in religious ceremonies. It functioned as a percussion instrument that was shaken to create a soothing noise that was thought to appease a god or goddess. In the New Kingdom the menat necklace and sistrum were attributes of women who held the title 'Singer of Amun-Re' such as Renenutet, who is depicted holding her menat on her lap in a statue.

In the early 20th century, the Museum conducted excavations at Malqata, a site at the southern end of the Theban necropolis where Amenhotep III had built a festival city for the celebration of his three jubilees (or heb seds). This miraculously preserved menat necklace and two single-strand necklaces of beads and amulets were found in the corner of a room in a private house near the King's Palace. According to the excavators, the three necklaces had been placed in a linen bag, traces of which were still visible.

Dimensions: Length of counterpoise 147 mm.

Catalog: Faience, bronze or copper alloy, glass, agate, carnelian, lapis lazuli, turquoise, Thebes, Malqata, Birket Habu Mound B 1, Private House B, MMA excavations, 1911–12, Accession Number 11.215.450
Photo: CC0 1.0, Public Domain publicdomaintext.gif
Source: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/544509
Text: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/544509




obelisk doorjamb
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Queen Hatshepsut


(left) Pink granite obelisk of Queen Hatshepsut, early 1 400s BC, from Qasr Ibrim.

On one side it is inscribed with the names of the queen described as 'beloved of Horus, Lord of Miam (modern-day Aniba), living forever like Ra'. The names were later erased as an attempt to remove her memory from history.

Catalog: EA1834


(right) Sandstone door-jamb with the name of Pharaoh Thutmose Ill, from Buhen, about 1 470 BC.

The door-jamb bears an incised hieroglyphic text on the front, including the name of the pharaoh, who is described as 'beloved of the god Horus Lord of Buhen'.

Catalog: EA1019


Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, http://www.britishmuseum.org/




dsc07062servantsm dsc07061servantsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Nubian female servant


Wooden figurine of a female servant, carrying an object on the left shoulder, the left forearm is lost. It is possibly a cosmetic item, funerary equipment, Amenophis III / Amenhotep III (?), 1 388 BC - 1 350 BC

Partially painted, with the remains of gilded pastiglia.

Pastiglia is an Italian term meaning 'pastework', and consists of low relief decoration, normally modelled in gesso or white lead, applied to build up a surface that may then be gilded or painted, or left plain.

Dimensions: 135 x 40 x 30 mm.

Catalog: Wood, Thebes West (?) ÄM 14389
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf, Wikipedia








Royal sarcophagi of the New Kingdom in the Valley of the Kings


The mummies of kings were enclosed in up to three coffins of increasing size, of gilded wood or precious metal. These were placed in an outer stone coffin or sarcophagus. The design of kings' sarcophagi evolved throughout the New Kingdom. Those of the 18th Dynasty (about 1550-1295 BC) were carved from quartzite or granite, rectangular in shape and sometimes rounded at the head.

In the 19th Dynasty as many as four sarcophagi, of different stones and varying designs, were sometimes provided. In the 19th and 20th Dynasties, the innermost sarcophagus was of polished calcite (Egyptian alabaster), imitating the shape of the body and covered with scenes and inscriptions from the Book of Gates. This funerary text described the sun god's nocturnal journey through the underworld. The finest sarcophagus of this type was found in the tomb of Sety I (and is now in the Sir John Soane Museum, London).

Fragments from other tombs indicate that later kings including Ramesses II and Merenptah possessed similar sarcophagi.


Source: Poster, British Museum
Text: Poster at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Nehi




Private coffin and sarcophagus terms in the New Kingdom and their position in the ensemble.

Photo and text: Böhme (2013)








Nehi Nehi


Nehi


Nehi


Nehi


Nehi Nehi


Nehi Nehi


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Nehi


Sarcophagus case of Nehi, circa 1 390 BC - 1 350 BC

Nehi (or Nehy) was an Ancient Egyptian official with the titles of a viceroy of Kush - the governor of the Nubian provinces which were under Egyptian control. Nehy was in office under Thutmose III. In the 23rd year of Thutmose III he followed the king on his campaign to Syria. There are several inscriptions of Nehy found in Nubia, attesting building activity at several places. Nehy was buried at Thebes although the exact location of his tomb is lost. However, in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin is preserved his monumental sarcophagus. Sarcophagi for officials are rare in this period providing evidence for the high social status of Nehy in his time.

Thebes. TT D.1. Nehi.
Sethe Urk. iv, 982-3 [284 A] a-c; Aeg. Inschr. ii, 597-601.

Catalog: Sandstone, ÄM 17895
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional Text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf, Wikipedia


munich egyptian exhibits
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Sobeknakht


Stela of the hereditary Prince Sobeknakht

New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty circa 1 380 BC Kalzitalabaster (fine calcite like alabaster).

Catalog: Quarries of Amarna (?) Gl. WAF 28
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




dsc07064nudegirlsm img_2157servantsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Nude Girl


Statue of a nude girl, left forearm, right arm and feet lost, possibly a mirror-handle, wood, late Eighteenth Dynasty.

Catalog: Wood, ÄM 12463
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf




dsc07072baboonscribesm


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

The Scribe Tjaj and the god Thoth


The Scribe Tjaj in front of the god Thoth, patron of scribes, in the shape of a baboon.

Amenophis III / Amenhotep III (?), circa 1388 - 1350 BC.

Catalog: Wood, serpentine ÄM 20001
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf




dsc07849scribe1sm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Scribe


Statuette of a scribe in the style of the time of Pharaoh Amenhotep III. Late 18th Dynasty

Amenhotep III/IV , circa 1388 - 1334 BC.

Catalog: Dark stone, Amarna, House O 47.7, serpentine ÄM 22621
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_2643necklacessm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Necklaces


The fly-shaped necklaces symbolise courage and tenacity. They are given to soldiers as an award.

Catalog: Gold, glass; location unknown, circa 1 500 - 1 300 BC.
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden




Shabtis: servants for the afterlife
The ancient Egyptian idea of the afterlife included the possibility that the dead might have to carry out agricultural labour. This could be avoided by having small mummy-shaped figurines of the deceased, known as shabti, shawabti or ushabti. These figures, made of stone, wood, faience, pottery and sometimes bronze, would magically perform work on behalf of their owner.

They were a regular feature of tomb equipment from the Middle Kingdom to the Ptolemaic period (about 2000-30 BC). Originally, the shabti acted as a substitute for its owner, but it later came to be regarded more as a servant, and its character as an agricultural labourer was highlighted by the representation of tools held in the hands. The magical spell which ensured the proper functioning of the shabtis was frequently inscribed on the figures.

The number of shabtis per burial gradually increased from one or two to 401. This total comprised 365 'worker' shabtis (one assigned for each day of the year) and 36 'overseers' to control each team of ten figures. Whereas earlier shabtis were often large and finely carved, the later increase in quantity brought a corresponding decline in size and quality.
Text above: Poster at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Limestone shabti of Nefer
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Shabti of Nefer


Limestone shabti of the priest of Amun, Nefer, with a lappet-wig, a modelled face with a beard and arms crossed in relief over the chest. The leg section is inscribed with seven rows of Hieroglyphs.

Circa 1 500 BC.

Height 250 mm, width 80 mm, depth 69 mm.

Titles/epithets include: God's Servant of Amun.

Catalog: EA51819
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0,




Shabti of Renseneb
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Shabti of Renseneb


Painted wooden shabti of Renseneb, circa 1 500 BC.

Eight rows of Hieroglyphic text. Height 242 mm.

Catalog: EA57342
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0,




Shabti of Lady Mes
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Shabti of Lady Mes


Painted limestone, height 230 mm, circa 1 450 BC. Nine rows of Hieroglyphic text.

Catalog: EA27372
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0,




Shabti of Hatsherit

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Shabti of Hatsherit


Wooden shabti of Hatsherit, Chantress of the Aten. Probably reign of Akhenaten, circa 1 352 - 1 336 BC

( note that this identification may be inaccurate. The information here including the catalog number of EA8644 is from the shelves of the British Museum in 2015, and it is at variance with the shabti shown in the online BM catalog, pictured immediately below, which depicts a quite different shabti. It is a possibility that this is also a shabti of Hatsherit, but in any case its catalog number is not EA8644, which is well attested for the shabti shown below - Don )

Catalog number given on card: EA8644
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, Wikipedia




Shabti of Hatsherit

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Shabti of Hatsherit


( this is the shabti from the BM online catalog, also with the catalog number of EA8644 - Don )

Ebony shabti of Hatsheret, Chantress of Aten. The number of Osiride attributes of the figures is striking, including the mummiform stance and the epithet 'true of voice', which translates as 'justified' in the traditional religion. The beautiful ebony shabti is inscribed with the conventional shabti spell from the Book of the Dead naming 'the Osiris, Hatsheret'.

Height 235 mm, width 65 mm, depth 47 mm, weight 350 grams.

Catalog: EA8644
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, Wikipedia




shabti of a Royal Nurse
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Shabti of a Royal Nurse


Calcite, height 206 mm, width 64 mm, circa 1 400 BC.

Inscribed with the 6th chapter of the Book of the Dead, in 11 horizontal bands of text.

Catalog: Abydos, EA66677
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0,




img_9945leftlidsm img_9946redwarelidsm


img_9944lidsm img_9942jarlid48980sm


img_9943lidsm


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Canopic Jar lids


Painted pottery Canopic Jar lids.

EA9604: Painted pottery lid of a canopic jar in the form of a human head; blue and yellow striped head-cloth.
Height 130 mm, width 120 mm.

EA57340: Red ware pottery lid of a canopic jar in the form of a human head; painted black and white.
Diameter 150 mm, height 110 mm.

EA9594: Black and yellow painted pottery lid of a canopic jar in the form of a human head.
Height 105 mm, width 120 mm.

EA48980: Painted pottery human-headed stopper of a canopic jar.
Diameter 127 mm, height 104 mm.

EA9582: Painted pottery lid of a canopic jar in the form of a human head.
Height 50 mm, width 125 mm.

Catalog: Painted pottery, Provenance unknown, circa 1 550 BC - 1 400 BC, EA9604, EA57340, EA9594, EA48980, EA9582
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_9941lidea9608sm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Wooden Canopic Jar lid


Height 130 mm, width 90 mm.

Acacia (?) wood lid from a canopic jar in the form of a human head; eye-detail in black paint.

Catalog: Acacia wood Canopic Jar lid, circa 1 550 BC - 1 295 BC, EA9608
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_4270doublerownecklacesm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Double row necklace


Circa 1 544 BC - 1 305 BC.

Catalog: Faience, inv. 99/87
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe Germany




dsc00359canopicjarfromnurserysm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Canopic jar of a child of the Royal Nursery


Pottery canopic jar of an individual called Iahmose; lid in form of human head; five columns of incised Hieroglyphic text on body; holes pierced in lid and shoulder for attachment.

Height 330 mm.

Catalog: Painted pottery, Upper Egypt, EA9535
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_9948ea9544sm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Canopic Jar


Painted pottery Canopic Jar without inscription. Three red/black/blue bands round the body; human-headed lid with a striped wig and collar.

Diameter: 195 mm. Height 320 mm.

Catalog: Painted pottery, Upper Egypt, circa 1450 BC, EA9544
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_9948ea9544sm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Canopic Jar


Pottery Canopic Jar with cursive hieroglyphic text. Circa 1500 BC.

Worn ( damaged - Don ) lid in the form of a human head; five columns of painted Hieratic text. Text is speech of the goddess Selkis. The owner is named as Renseneb.

Diameter: 185 mm. Height 310 mm.

Catalog: Painted pottery, provenance unknown, circa 1500 BC, EA53996
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




sandstone stela
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Merymose


Sandstone stela of Merymose: describing the campaign of Merymose against the Nubians of Ibhet in thirteen lines of incised hieroglyphic text. Several lines from the beginning of the inscription are missing and the whole of the upper portion is badly mutilated and weathered. The greater part of the last half of the sixth and seventh lines is destroyed and the ends of many others are damaged.

Sandstone stela (stone slab) of the Egyptian Viceroy of Kush, Merymose, from Semna, circa 1 400 BC. Abyssinia, or Ethiopia, was known as Kush to the ancient Egyptians.

A hieroglyphic text describes his campaign against the Nubians of lbha. Merymose served under Pharaoh Amenhotep III.


The text describing the campaign of Merymose against the Nubians of Ibhet is in thirteen lines of incised hieroglyphic text. Several lines from the beginning of the inscription are missing and the whole of the upper portion is badly mutilated and weathered. The greater part of the last half of the sixth and seventh lines is destroyed and the ends of many others are damaged.

Catalog: EA657
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




tomb painting
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Sebekhotep


Wall painting from an Egyptian tomb showing the presentation of African products to the pharaoh during the 18th Dynasty, circa 1400 BC, from the tomb-chapel of Sebekhotep at Thebes, TT63, during the rule of Thutmose IV.


The two fragments formed part of a large scene in which Africans and people from Western Asia are shown presenting the products of their lands to the Egyptian king. The men of the south are painted brown or black, and wear large earrings and animal skin kilts. Their offerings include gold nuggets and rings, ebony logs, a monkey, a baboon, giraffe tails and a leopard skin. The last figure carries a tray of reddish objects, probably pieces of red jasper.

EA921: Part of tomb wall, made of plaster on mud. Painted representation of Nubians offering gold nuggets and rings to the king (not seen), with a cornice above.

Height: 710 mm, width 965 mm.


EA922: Part of tomb wall showing Nubians bringing tribute from the south to Pharaoh. The figure at the front carries interlocking gold rings over one arm; the man behind bears ebony logs on his shoulder and a giraffe's tail in one hand. The third figure carries a leopard skin and a basket full of chunks of red jasper; a monkey perches behind his head. All three wear earrings.

Height 740 mm, width 610 mm.

Catalog: EA921, EA922
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




dsc06643armguardsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Thutmose IV


Armguard of King Thutmose IV, defeating enemies before the war god Montu.

Dimensions: 45 x 120 x 60 mm (incl. Base)


Catalog: Ivory, from Q 48.01, A small group of houses at Amarna, AE 21685
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07333gamesm


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Senet board of Sennefer with game pieces


The senet gameboard is a grid of 30 squares, arranged in three rows of ten. A senet board has two sets of pawns (at least five of each). Although details of the original game rules are a subject of some conjecture, senet historians Timothy Kendall and R. C. Bell have made their own reconstructions of the game. These rules are based on snippets of texts that span over a thousand years, over which time gameplay is likely to have changed. Therefore, it is unlikely these rules reflect the actual course of ancient Egyptian gameplay. However their rules have been adopted by sellers of modern senet sets.

Catalog: Wood, bone, faience, ÄM 7456, ÄM 8972, ÄM 10756/1, ÄM 11027, ÄM 22056, ÄM 27103
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Display, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia




map of Nubia






Map showing modern day Sudan, Egypt and Nubia.

Photo: Poster at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Poster at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Egypt timeline

Timeline from prehistoric Sudan and Nubia to Sudan and Nubia today.

Photo: Poster at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Poster at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0



fields


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Nebamun


Surveying the fields for Nebamun, circa 1350 BC.

Nebamun was the accountant in charge of grain at the great Temple of Amun at Thebes (Modern Karnak). This scene from his tomb-chapel shows officials inspecting fields. A farmer checks the boundary marker of the field. Nearby, two chariots for the party of officials wait under the shade of a sycamore-fig tree.

Other smaller fragments from this wall are now in the Egyptian Museum, Berlin, and show the grain being harvested and processed.

Paint on plaster, 1067 x 458 mm, Thebes, Egypt


Fragment of a limestone tomb-painting representing the assessment of crops, for the purposes of tax, on Nebamun's estate, five vertical registers of hieroglyphs survive; the rest of the fragment is divided into two registers, with a horse-drawn chariot above and cart drawn by onagers beneath.

Catalog: EA37982
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




DSC06181scarabshapesm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Amenhotep III


Memorial scarab of Amenhotep III, circa 1 388 BC - 1 350 BC.

Catalog: Steatite, glazed, unknown origin, Inv. Nr. 1976.106
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




fields


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Nebamun


Surveying the fields for Nebamun, circa 1350 BC.

Reconstruction drawing by C. Thorne and R.B. Parkinson
Photographs of the Berlin fragments by J. LIepe, © Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: display, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




DSC06164coffinsledsm


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Procession to the grave


Train of sledges bearing a coffin and grave goods on the way to the grave, circa 1 310 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, Saqqara (?), Inv. Nr. 1935.200.192
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




stela stela


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Hor and Suty


This inscribed granite stela, circa 1350 BC, comes from the tomb-chapel of twin brothers, Hor and Suty. They were important officials, the chief architects in the Temple of Armun, where Nebamun worked, and they probably knew him. Their door shaped stela is decorated with prayers and hymns to the Sun-God who ruled over life and rebirth.

Granodiorite stela of Hor and Suty: a round-topped stela, carved within the rectangular framework of the door. The inscriptions throughout are incised and the figures carved in sunk relief. On the lintel of the door are three horizontal lines of text reading from the centre outwards. On the right side, there are three vertical lines of text. At the base of the right panel above a figure of Hor, seated at a table of offerings (almost entirely obliterated), are four (?) vertical lines of text.

On the left side are three vertical lines of text. At the base of the left panel above a figure of Suty, seated at a table of offerings (almost entirely obliterated), are four vertical lines of text. On the right and left of the top of the arch of the stela itself, in the angle formed by the frame of the door is a 'wedjat'-eye. In the arch of the stela is a winged disc.


The stela comprises two registers. The first register is divided into two symmetrical scenes: On the right Anubis, shown with jackal's head, wearing a short skirt and holding a sceptre in the left hand and 'ankh' in the right, is adored by Hor and a woman (both almost entirely obliterated). Above Anubis, there are two vertical columns of text. Above Hor and the woman, are four vertical columns of text. On the left Osiris, shown in mummy form, wearing a crown, beard, necklace and counterpoise, and holding a sceptre in his hands, is adored by Suty and a woman (both obliterated). Above Osiris are two vertical columns of text. Above Suty and the woman, are four vertical columns of text. The second register carries an inscription in twenty-one horizontal lines. The stela is well preserved, but there are minor abrasions. The name of Suty in the left hand panel of the door and all the figures with their accompanying inscriptions, apart from those of the gods, were erased in antiquity. Hor and Suty are usually regarded as brothers, although it has been proposed that they are a same sex couple; the inscription, however, strongly suggests that they were twins.

Twentyone lines of a hymn to the sungod:

Praising Amun when he rises as Harakhty
by the Overseer of Works of Amun Suty
and the Overseer of Works of Amun Hor: they say,
“Hail to you Re, beauty of every day,
who rises at dawn ceaselessly,
Khepri who tires himself with labour!
Your rays are on the face, unknown;
electrum – it is not like your splendour;
creator of yourself, you fashion your body;
begetter unbegotten;
alone, unique, traversing eternity;
above all ways, with millions under his control;
your splendour is like the sky's splendour;
your colour brighter than its colours;
you cross the sky with all faces seeing you;
you set and (you) are hidden from their sight;
you give yourself at dawn;
secure is your sailing with your majesty;
a short day and you run a race –
hundred thousands and millions of miles;
each day is a moment to you,
passing as you set;
the hours of the night also listen to you;
you have ordered them with no ceasing in your work;
all eye(s) see by you;
they are useless when your majesty sets;
you arise to shine at dawn
and your brightness opens the eyes of the flocks;
you set in the Western Hill
and then they sleep as if dead.

Hail to you sun-disk of day,
Creator of all, making them alive!
Great hawk, dapple-plumed;
scarab who raises himself up;
who creates himself unbegotten;
eldest Horus in the midst of Nut;
applauded for rising and also setting;
who creates what the earth makes;
the Khnum and Amun of the living;
who seizes the two lands, from great to small;
shining mother of mankind and gods;
patient craftsman,
tireless in making them numberless;
valiant shepherd driving his flock,
their shelter keeping them alive;
runner, racer, courser;
Khepri of exceptional birth,
who displays his beauty in the womb of Nut,
who illumines the two lands as his sundisk;
Primeval one of the two lands who made himself,
and who sees that he made alone;
who reaches the ends of the earth every day,
in the view of those who walk on it;
who rises in the sky formed as the sun,
making the seasons in the months;
burning when he wants,
cool when he wants;
he lays bodies low and he revives them;
every land choruses his rising;
every day will praises him!”

The Overseer of Works Suty and the Overseer of Works Hor, he (!) says,
'I was in charge of your city,
overseer of works in your very shrine,
made for you by your beloved son,
Lord of the Two Lands Nebmaatre given live.
My lord appointed me to be in charge of your monuments, knowing my vigilance.
I was a valiant man in charge of your monuments,
who did truth as your wish.
I know you are pleased by truth,
advancing him who does it on earth.
I did it and you advanced me,
giving me favours on earth in Karnak.
I was in your following when you appeared.
I was a just man, whose horror is disorder,
unpleased with any words of a liar -
only my brother, like myself, his ways pleased me,
for he had come from the womb
with me on the same day,
the Overseer of Works of Amun in Luxor, Suty and Hor.
I was in charge on the right while he was in charge on the left,
as we controlled the great monuments in Karnak
at the front of Thebes, the city of Amun.
May you give me an old age in your city,
with my eyes on your beauty,
and a burial in the west, the place of contentment,
as I join with the favoured ones
who have departed in peace!
May you give me a sweet breeze when (I) land
and garlands(?) on the day of the Wag-feast!'

Catalog: EA826
Photo: (left) Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo: (right) © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




dsc07073scribe2sm
Late Eighteenth Dynasty / Early Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 319 BC - 1 279 BC

Scribe


Statuette of an unknown scribe.

The clerk in his long, pleated robe is crouched with a papyrus spread out on his lap. He is holding his writing instrument in his right hand. The robe, shoulder-length wig and almond-shaped eyes speak for a date in the late 18th Dynasty. The statuette could have been grave goods, or have been a donation in a temple. The job of a writer was one of the most respected in ancient Egypt, so it is not surprising that many officials also portrayed themselves as such. (J. Jancziak, via https://artsandculture.google.com/ )

Catalog: Green granite, Horemheb/Seti I, ÄM 14445
(identified as glazed steatite, soapstone, by Google Arts and Culture)
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Google Arts and Culture, https://artsandculture.google.com/




dsc06676hathor_am_629sm


Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Sched-es-en-mut


Ushabti box of Sched-es-en-mut.

Side wall of a Shabti box of Sched-es-en-mut, depicting Hathor in front of the grave of Sched-es-en-mut, while she shows adoration of Hathor.

Dimensions: 250 mm x 400 mm x 13 mm.

This polychrome painted side wall of a shabta box is very likely made of sycomore wood and has a slightly trapezoidal outline. It was purchased in 1823 by Johann Heinrich Carl Menu Freiherr von Minutoli (1772-1846) together with the pieces ÄM 629-632, 780, 783 and 831-832 for his collection of Egyptian antiquities. The object is primed with a strong ochre tone and shows a representation as it is known from numerous Theban graves.

A pyramid-shaped chapel made of bright white limestone is provided with two inscription columns, which represent black hieroglyphs on a yellow background. The first is in the upper area of ​​the pyramid tip and names 'Osiris, Mistress of the Upper Egyptian House of Amun (Karnak)'. The female nominal form refers to the title of the deceased, who has already become an Osiris. Her name is right in the entrance to the grave, which is shown in red (granite?), Sched-es-en-mut.

Immediately above is a tableau depicting the seated god Osiris with an atef crown (the specific feathered white crown of the ancient Egyptian deity Osiris) in front of a kneeling woman in a long white robe. Presumably it is the deceased herself, whose name is no longer legible in the three columns of inscriptions above her.

Directly next to the tomb chapel is the typical representation of the Theban western mountains consisting of a red background with red-black dot and red line divisions. The goddess Hathor emerges from the mountains in the form of a cow with a backrest, a menitre and the Hathor crown, which consists of a horned cow with a sun disk and two ostrich feathers.

At the front end there is an uraeus that protrudes above the cow's forehead. The colourfully feathered sun disc Behedeti (or Winged Sun of Thebes) hovers over the goddess with spread wings. Below is a column with inscriptions that belong to the goddess Hathor. In front of the cow and over the kneeling adorant are seven further columns, which give the sweet north wind through Hathor, the mistress of the western necropolis and the mistress of the Upper Egyptian house of Amun-Re (Karnak), Sched-s (t )- Courage, the justified, describe. Between Hathor and the deceased are a libation vase (hs), a lotus chalice with papyrus plants, a lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and a one-footed sacrificial table. On the latter are two round flatbreads, which frame a hand washing vessel (nms).

A lotus flower (Nymphaea caerulea) forms the upper end of the sacrificial structure. The kneeling deceased wears a long white dress with a coat over it. Two long blue strips of fabric hold the robe together in front of the chest. Around her neck is a wide Wesekh neck collar made of blue faience pearls. While the left hand is raised in the gesture of adoration, it carries a sistrum and a blue plant in the right, which could be a lily due to its shape.

Sched-es-en-mut wears two yellow-blue bangles around her wrists and a wide flower diadem on the wavy long hair wig. On her head there is also an ointment cone with two lotus buds, which are intended to illustrate the fragrance. The representation on the side of a shabti box can be the vignette from the death book claim 186, which is not explicitly reproduced in the text here, but is illustrated solely by the illustration. This interpretation is supported by the opposite shabti wall (ÄM 630), on which there is clearly the vignette for the Book of the Dead 59.

Text above by A. Weber, from http://www.smb-digital.de/

Catalog: Wood, primed and painted, ÄM 629, ÄM 630, ÄM 631, ÄM 632
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Display, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07948_am_630sm


Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Sched-es-en-mut


Ushabti box of Sched-es-en-mut.

Catalog: Wood, primed and painted, ÄM 629, ÄM 630, ÄM 631, ÄM 632
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Display, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07947_adoring_osirissm


Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Sched-es-en-mut


Ushabti box of Sched-es-en-mut.

( Adoration of Osiris - Don )

Catalog: Wood, primed and painted, ÄM 629, ÄM 630, ÄM 631, ÄM 632
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Display, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc06677deceased_adoring_horusbsm


dsc06678_06679_c_worshipping_horussm


Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Sched-es-en-mut


Ushabti box of Sched-es-en-mut.

( Adoration of the falcon-headed god, Horus. Note that the lower image is of higher resolution, since it has been stitched together from two close up images - Don )

Catalog: Wood, primed and painted, ÄM 629, ÄM 630, ÄM 631, ÄM 632
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Display, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc06687pectoralsm
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Nebua


Pectoral of the royal scribe Nebua

Dimensions: 98 x 110 x 21 mm.


The pectoral (breast decoration) of the royal scribe Neb-ua comes from Saqqara and was acquired in 1827 by Giuseppe Passalacqua (1797-1865) for his collection of Egyptian antiquities. It consists of blue faience with red inlays made of jasper and a black and green scarab made of serpentinite on the front. The object is reminiscent of the shape of a small temple, with a groove, a round bar and a square border.

Between the water lines and lotus flowers in the lower area and the winged sun disk Behedeti at the upper end, it could represent the entire cosmos just like a temple. Between heaven and earth is the barque of the sun god, which passes the firmament and the horizons around the regenerated god Re every day, here in his morning form of the Chepri, to drive over the earthly and underground waters. Due to its central position on the object, the shrine that surrounds it and the special inlay work that serves as an application, the sun beetle is to be regarded as the centre of attention.

Next to the sun beetle are the goddesses Isis and Nephthys, who protectively raise their arms over Chepri. As a rejuvenated sun god, the scarab is the symbol of the renewal that the owner of the object wanted after his death. On the back you can see him in the Ramesside-era 'robe of the living', how he stands with raised arms (Betergestus, the gesture of prayer) to the god Osiris, who is wrapped in mummy bandages and demonstrates his status as ruler of the underworld by crook and fronds. In addition, he wears the typical Atef crown on his head.

Two columns of inscriptions reflect the names 'Osiris' and 'Royal Scribe, Neb-ua'. Since the pectoral is not pierced on the sides or has holes for suspension, it can be assumed that it was never worn during his lifetime, but rather served as a burial object and was probably placed directly on the deceased's mummy.

Text above: A. Weber, http://www.smb-digital.de/eMuseumPlus?service=ExternalInterface&module=collection&objectId=597790&viewType=detailView , (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)

Catalog: Faience, blue, red; Jasper, red; Serpentinite, Memphis / Saqqara, ÄM 1983
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Display, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




vulture
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Votive figure


Hand-modelled unfired clay figurine of a vulture standing upon a low base. The clay has been tempered with fine organic matter, and the maker has detailed the wings, legs and distinctive neck and head of the vulture.

Height 77 mm, width 36 mm, depth 78 mm.

This figure is part of a class of objects which includes representations of cobras, rams, crocodiles, birds etc. They have been found in temple contexts such as Abydos but are also likely to have found used in funerary and domestic spheres. Fired clay figurines, of similar form, scale and subject matter, are a feature of New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period settlement sites.


Catalog: Abydos, EA61915
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




dsc07336crocodilesm


Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Crocodile


This wooden crocodile has been carved with a movable jaw.

( this was probably a pull-along child's toy - Don )

Catalog: Thebes, ÄM 6817
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Display, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




head rest
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Headrest


Wooden tripartite head-rest with two ivory domed studs. The middle section has been decorated with a column of incised hieroglyphs, giving the name and title of the owner: 'the wan-priest and chief chisel-bearer of Amun, Huy.

Height 155 mm, length 235 mm, width 76 mm.

Titles/epithets include: Chief Chisel-Bearer of Amun; Pure-Priest.


Catalog: Thebes, EA65266
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




head rest
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Headrest


Another view of the headrest above, from the online image database of the British Museum.

Head-rests are a common feature of elite 18th dynasty burials at Thebes.

Catalog: Thebes, EA65266 Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




box box


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Cosmetic box


Rectangular ebony cosmetic-box provided with a lid and four feet. The box is made from six pieces of wood, secured with dowels. The base of each leg has a small ivory pad, glued to the wood. Small right angle braces, also of ivory, are fitted between the legs and base of the box.

The lid of the box is formed from two pieces of wood, joined with a shaped baton which also serves to stop the lid moving when placed on the box. The wood of the box has been covered with a layer of wood veneer, which bears a decorative arrangement of pink-stained ivory and blue faience.

These are not inlaid into the wood of the box itself but are glued in place. A further row of small ivory pieces has been used along the edges of the box. An ivory knob on both the lid and box would have allowed the box to be secured with cord.

Catalog: EA5897
Photo: (left) Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo: (right) © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0






img_2711makeupsm
New Kingdom: 18th - 20th Dynasty, 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Vessels for eye make-up (kohl)

(Two lidded jars on the left)

Catalog: Saqqara, Thebes, Abydos; Wood, Malachite, Serpentine, Cane, Anydrite (Gypsum), Faience, ÄM 1324, ÄM 3408, ÄM 6772, ÄM 10817, ÄM 12780, ÄM 16142, ÄM 20574.


Middle - New Kingdom: 11th - 20th Dynasty, 2 025 BC - 1 077 BC

Ointment spoons and cosmetic sticks

(on the right, an opened jar with lid, and three spoons/cosmetic sticks)

Catalog: ÄM 4699/4, ÄM 6761, ÄM 12760, ÄM 35431, Z 4402, Z 4404. Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




egypt


egypt


New Kingdom: 18th - 20th Dynasty, 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Spoon in the form of a swimmer.

1 400 BC - 1 300 BC

Length 125 mm.

Catalog: Bone? E 10903
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Louvre Museum, Paris, France
Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr/cartelfr/visite?srv=car_not_frame&idNotice=19302&langue=fr



img_2716necklacessm img_2718necklacesm



Middle - New Kingdom: 12th - 20th Dynasty, 1 991 BC - 1 077 BC

Jewellery

Necklaces, collars and ringplates. Ringplates were attached to the circle of metal around the finger.

Catalog: Thebes and Abusir, ÄM 5257 (four row necklace consisting of tube, disc, and ring beads, Faience, yellow, green, red, turquoise, black, 430 x 20 x 4 mm), ÄM 6580, ÄM 9029, ÄM 13199, ÄM 16601, ÄM 18775, ÄM 18777, ÄM 19380.

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Jewellery Case

Jewellery case in the shape of a small chest, and necklace or chain.

Circa 1450 BC.

Catalog: Malachite and Faience, ÄM 2038, ÄM 22908
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07636bluenecklacesm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Necklace

Necklace with lotus blossoms.

Catalog: Thebes, faience, ÄM 9029
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Display, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




DSC00835vesselssm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Model vessels


Mid to late 18th Dynasty, circa 1 450 BC - 1 295 BC.

The tombs of wealthy individuals of the New Kingdom often contained dummy or model vessels, made of wood or pottery, which were painted to imitate stone, glass, or faience. Such dummies acted as magical substitutes for the actual objects.


Wooden vessel of the lady Satamun, imitating coloured glass, EA35271

Wooden vessel of the High Priest of Anhur Nebseny, imitating calcite, EA30454

Wooden vessel imitating porphyry, EA35269

Handled pottery vessel imitating granular stone, EA57343

Wooden vessel imitating glass, EA2464

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_2141amenhotepusersm dsc07812familygroupsm


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Amenhotep-user and Tentwadj


Seated figure of Amenhotep-user and his wife Tentwadj.

Doorkeeper of the granary, and wife, with the outline of their son and daughter carved into the front of seat, and text mentioning Am un-Re of Karnak, Mut and Hathor.

Circa 1 425 BC

Catalog: Quartzite, Thebes, ÄM 2298
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3pm8sta3.pdf




dsc07321ointmentandchainsm


Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 075 BC

Chain

---

Protodynastic: 3 200 BC

Ointment jar

Catalog: Abusir, amethyst, gold, ÄM 18775, ÄM 34405
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Display, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




stool
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Stool


Wooden stool with lattice bracing, gessoed and painted white. The double-cove seat is formed of curved strips of wood with four slats in the centre. The wood was either steamed and bent or cut to shape. The surface has been gessoed and painted white.

Lattice bracing fills the voids between the four legs of the stool. The sides alternate in the use of one and two vertical struts, one for the shorter sides and two for the longer. A feature common in latticework stools is the slightly higher stretchers on the shorter sides, which preserves the strength of the wood by separating pairs of mortise-and-tenon joints.

( Stretchers are, in this case, the lowest horizontal piece of wood connecting pairs of legs - Don )

Height 381 mm, width 370 mm, depth 325 mm, weight 2200 grams.


Catalog: Thebes, EA2476
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




bowl
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Bowl


Bright blue-green glazed composition (faience) bowl with circular foot and flaring base, slightly flaring sides and plain rim. The exterior is decorated with a painted flower motif, the interior with a representation of three interlocking fish with birds and floral motifs between. The rim is chipped.

Height 42 mm, diameter 127 mm.

Catalog: EA30449
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




lotus cup
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Lotus cup


Blue-green glazed composition (faience) cup with circular foot, short stem and bell-shaped body, exterior elaborated with incised decoration representing lotus petals.

Height 136 mm, diameter 95 mm

Footed faience cups of this type were typically recovered from elite tombs.

Catalog: EA32626
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Beer Mug Beer Mug
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Beer Mug


Circa 1351 BC - 1334 BC, i.e. during the reign of Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten.

( see below for the way that this beer mug was used - Don )

Catalog: Amarna, Haus Q 47.13; Nilton, ÄM 22290
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


straw straw straw


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Lead straw and strainer

Angular portion of a lead drinking-tube, with representation of a lily in the angle. The perforated bulb at one end would allow solids in the liquid ( probably beer rather than wine - Don ) to be filtered out. The other end is broken, and would have been significantly longer.

Found at el-Amarna, TA:21/477 Main City, House N.49.20 Found in the same house as the famous glass fish (EA55193), along with two small metal vases, buried under a 'double plaster floor',

Length 192 mm, width 110 mm, height: 3 millimetres

Catalog: EA55149
Photo: (left and centre) Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo: (right) © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




drinking beer
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Stela depicting a Syrian mercenary drinking beer, using a lead straw very similar to the above.


Circa 1351 BC - 1334 BC, i.e. during the reign of Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten.

This stela shows the use of the straw, made with a strengthening triangle at the bend, as shown here, with a coarse filter in the beer flagon end to suck the beer from the flagon, thus avoiding the malt floating on top.

( When I saw the beer mug above, I thought 'That's not a beer mug, this is a beer mug!' However this stela shows that it was used more like a beer flagon, and there was a 'straw' used (typically made of lead, with a strengthening triangle at the bend, as shown here with a coarse filter in the beer flagon end) to suck the beer from the flagon, avoiding the malt floating on top. Presumably the 'straw' could have been handed around a group of people sitting at the same table, drinking and talking - Don )

Catalog: Painted limestone, ÄM 14122
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




jar
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Pottery jar


Pottery jar with a painted base, convex sides widening to a rounded shoulder with three stirrup-handles. The tall concave neck widens to an everted rim. The vessel is decorated with a buff-coloured slip, and decoration in red and black paint.

Three painted representations of an ankh-sign with arms holding two Was-sceptres (and with two smaller ankh-signs suspended from the arms) are arranged between parallel bands of red and black paint. Further bands embellish the neck of the vase.

Height 275 mm, diameter: 120 mm

A similar form of jar, also with black and red banded decoration but not the ankh-signs, was found as part of a large group of ceramic vessels in tomb 1169 at Deir el-Medina (Nagel, La céramique du Novel Empire à Deir el Médineh, DFIFAO 10, 93 fig.73)

( since no date is given on the museum card nor on the online catalog, I have given this piece the same date as the tomb 1169 mentioned above - Don )

Catalog: EA4861
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




jars and statue
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Contemporaries of Amenhotep III and Akhenaten


(left, 14) Temple statue of Amenhotep.

The Amenhotep name means 'Amon is satisfied'. But during the Akhenaten revolution the 'Amon' part was cut away. Yet the god names Osiris, Isis and Onuris remain. Circa 1 391 BC - 1 353 BC.

Limestone, unknown provenance.


(centre, 15) Canopic jar of Ptahmes. He was a vizier or viceroy.

Alabaster, Thebes (?), circa 1 391 BC - 1 353 BC


(right, 16) Canopic jar of Ipy. Ipy was the Chief Steward of the king in Mamphis.

Alabaster, Saqqara, circa 1 360 BC.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden, http://www.rmo.nl/




jshabtis
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Merymery


Shabtis of Merymery

Merymery was 'guardian of the treasury'. Two of the carvings are in the form of grain grinders.

Description of the shabti on the left:

Limestone, mummy shaped, 420 x 130 mm, from the time of Amenhotep III

Catalog: 44a
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden, http://www.rmo.nl/




General Djehuty
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

General Djehuty


General Djehuty was a comrade of the pharaoh and governor of the conquered territories in Palestine and Syria. His tomb contains, among other things, gifts from the pharaoh, including alabaster oil vases and gold bracelets, one of the bracelets inscribed with the name of Thutmose III. There is a collar closure in a lotus shape, and a scarab with gold chain, all dated to the reign of Thutmose III, circa 1 485 BC - 1 425 BC.

On the right is a grave model of a slate writing palette, 385 x 57 x 10 mm, Catalog: AD 39.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden, http://www.rmo.nl/
Additional text: http://www.tasaram.com/scarves-in-antiquity.html




General Djehuty
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

General Djehuty


To the left of the top of this writing palette is this very beautiful so-called 'bracelet', far too small to fit on an adult's arm, with the inscription of Thutmose III clearly visible. 38 mm wide,

( this 'bracelet' must have performed some other function, such as a ceremonial ring for the finger or thumb (it seems too delicate and thick for everyday use), or perhaps as a closure for a scarf - Don )


The ancient Egyptians wore small shawls or scarves (probably of linen) around their shoulders like little capes, and larger shawl-like scarves draped across their shoulders - often asymmetrically - and tied around the waist. The fabric was fine and gauze-like and the accordion pleats were created by pressing the damp fabric onto ribbed wooden boards.

Catalog: AO 2b
Photo: http://www.rmo.nl/collectie/zoeken?object=AO+2b
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden, http://www.rmo.nl/
Additional text: http://www.tasaram.com/scarves-in-antiquity.html




General Djehuty General Djehuty
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

General Djehuty


This piece is the scarab in green jasper from the tomb of General Djehuty, with gold fittings and attached to a long gold chain, with inscriptions for General Djehuty, and dimensions of 83 x 54 x 1330 mm, dated to the reign of Thutmose III, circa 1 485 BC - 1 425 BC.

Catalog: AO 1a
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2014
Photo (right): http://www.rmo.nl/collectie/zoeken?object=AO+1a
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden, http://www.rmo.nl/




General Djehuty
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

General Djehuty


Alabaster oil vases dated to the reign of Thutmose III, circa 1 485 BC - 1 425 BC.

Centre: Alabastron with inscription of Djehoety, 270 x 175 x 175 mm.

Catalog: L.VIII.20
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden, http://www.rmo.nl/








The Egyptian Trojan Horse

Djehuty is known from two sources. His undisturbed burial was found in 1824 at Saqqara and he is the main personality in the Egyptian story of 'The Taking of Joppa' (today Jaffa).

The Egyptian narrative is preserved on a papyrus now located in the British Museum (EA10060). The city of Joppa had rebelled against Thutmose III's authority and the pharaoh responded by dispatching an Egyptian army under Djehuty to regain control over the city. Djehuty first cunningly arranged to have a parley or talk with the rebel leader of Joppa at a location outside of the city walls. Once he was alone with the leader of the rebellion, Djehuty promptly smote the man on his forehead and captured him.

With this task accomplished, Djehuty decided to take control of the city by subterfuge. Djehuty first falsely proclaimed that he, Djehuty, had been defeated by the rebels and was now sending a 'tribute' to the inhabitants of Joppa. The tribute came in the form of two hundred baskets which were delivered to Joppa as a peace offering by Djehuty. Unbeknownst to Joppa's inhabitants, however, each of the baskets concealed one of Djehuty's own soldiers.

The governor of Joppa, fooled by Djehuty's ruse, had them taken into the city through its city gates. Soon after, Djehuty's soldiers rose out of their baskets and quickly captured the city and seized its citizens. The Egyptian description of the capture of Joppa is, hence, somewhat similar to the story of the Trojan Horse which hypothetically occurred some two centuries later at Troy. With Joppa now firmly back in Egyptian hands, Djehuty sent word to his king, Thutmose III, of his triumph:

'Be of good cheer! For Amun, your good father, has given to you, the rebel of Joppa and all his people, as well as his city. Send men to take them away as captives that you may fill the house of your father Amun-Ra, King of the Gods, with male and female slaves, who have fallen beneath your feet forever.'

Text above: Adapted from Wikipedia



Senenmut Senenmut
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Sobekhotep


Scribe figure of Sobekhotep, chief of the treasury during part of the reign of Amenhotep III.

Circa 1 400 BC

Catalog: Grey granite, Dime (?) , ÄM 11635
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




O'Connor, Cline (1961) write, in part:
Sobekmose's family is also unusual for the relatively secure dating of its members' tenure in office. Sobeknakht was already steward of Amon by year 20, when he joined the staff of Amon's high priests to witness the installation of one Nebnefer a chief grain measurer in the shena of the divine offerings of Amon. Sobeknakht's on, the treasurer Sobekmose, was in office by year 30, when he contributed wine to his master's first jubilee: at that time, his own son Sobekhotep was already an adult but still served as a subordinate treasury scribe. Six years later, however, Sobekhotep had replaced his father as chief treasurer and was deep in preparations for the king's third Sed Festival.

While most officials emerge from official records with no individual marks to colour the bland recital of their achievements, a tiny personal detail my perhaps be inferred for Sobekhotep. If his nickname, Panehsy, ' The Nubian '. is taken at face value, he would have been one of those dark complexioned Saïdis who still populate the towns and villages of Upper Egypt in great numbers. At an earlier stage of his career, he led trade and mining expeditions abroad in person.


dsc07871amenhotepdaughterssm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Daughters of Amenhotep III and Tiye


Circa 1 355 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, West Thebes, Grave of Cheruef (TT 192), ÄM 18526
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


Khaemhat
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Khaemhat


Khaemhat, Chief of the Granary during the reign of Amenhotep III.

Circa 1 360 BC

Catalog: Sandstone, Tomb TT 57, Western Thebes, ÄM 2063
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




tomb 47
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Khaemhat's tomb


Tomb of Khaemhat, Chief of the Granary during the reign of Amenhotep III.

Plan of Theban tomb 57, built circa 1 360 BC

( note that the plan of TT57 in Wikipedia is actually that of TT47. See http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/4khaem.html for further details - Don )

Photo: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/4khaem.html




akhenaten
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

King Amenhotep III


Circa 1 360 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, West Thebes, Grave of Chaemhat ÄM 14503
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


dsc07566amenhotepsm img_2392amenhotepiiism
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

King Amenhotep III


Head of a statue of King Amenhotep III, wearing nemes and double crown, circa 1360 BC.

Catalog: Diorite, Heliopolis (?), VÄGM 1997/118
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_2425cartouchesm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

King Amenhotep III


Cartouche of King Amenhotep III, circa 1388 - 1351 BC.

Catalog: Faience, ÄM 7241
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_2426buttonsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Queen Tiy cartouche


Button of a chest with the cartouche of Tiy, circa 1388 - 1351 BC.

Catalog: Faience, ÄM 20567
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc00320rolloflinencentresm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Funerary Cloth


Fragment of linen mummy wrapping.

Textile fragment; strip of medium-quality, undyed linen from tunic (?); warp fringe at each end preceded by triple self-band. The weave is compact and plain [warp-faced simple tabby] and the threads are S-spun and S-spliced; the stitch gauge is warp c.28 ends per 10mm and weft c.12 picks per 10mm. The warp fringes are made of up of groups of 6 threads = 2x3 Z-plied then S-twisted, knotted at the top (unclear whether originally knotted or looped as the ends are worn away).

Dimensions: Length 2560 mm (max), length 115 mm (fringe a), length: 90 mm (fringe b)

Width: 140 mm (max)

Catalog: EA6542
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0






dsc00320rolloflinenredrightsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Funerary Shroud


Fragment of dyed linen shroud.

Provenance unknown.

The outer shrouds of mummies were frequently dyed a deep reddish-pink using a dye made from the Safflower plant.

Catalog: EA6523
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Amenhotep III Amenhotep III
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

King Amenhotep III


Circa 1 400 BC.

These two heads come from a pair of colossal statues set up in the king's mortuary temple in western Thebes.

On the left, EA6 wears the red crown of Egypt.


On the right, EA7, the quartzite head of Amenhotep III wearing the red crown with uraeus. Despite its huge size, this head has been carved with infinite care. As on all of Amenhotep Ill's large statues, the eyeballs are noticeably angled back from the top to the bottom lid so that they appear to look down toward the viewer. The finishing polish was deliberately varied, from a glittering smoothness on the facial surfaces to less polish on the mouth and eyes - which thus seem slightly different in colour - to quite rough surfaces on the brows and cosmetic lines.

It is a round face, with plump, youthful-looking cheeks, and little indication of the underlying bone structure. The eyes are large, long, and rather narrow, with a slight slant. Heavily made-up eyebrows and upper lids, indicated in relief, extend back to the temples. The nose is rather broad at the nostrils, with a round tip. The mouth is full, its contours defined by a crisply cut outline. The upper lip is thicker than the lower, over which it droops in the centre. The lower lip curves in a perfect shallow arc up to the open corners of the mouth, to produce the effect of a slight smile.

EA6: height 1170 mm.

EA7: height 1170 mm, width 810 mm, depth 660 mm.

Catalog: Quartzite, Thebes, EA6, EA7
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


dsc07909amenhotep_iiism img_2257amenhotepsm


dsc07908amenhotep_iiism
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head of a King.


Head of the statue of a King, probably Amenhotep III.

Plaster model, 225 x 195 x 220 mm.

This face is distinguished from the other royal studies by its completely different physiognomy. The full face is characterised by a high degree of symmetry. Not only the full cheeks and the powerful, fleshy nose, the full mouth with the slightly raised lips, the round chin and the straight, short and wide neck, but also the characteristically shaped eyes with the barely indicated brows cause us to assume that this is a portrait of Amenhotep III.


Catalog: Amarna, plaster, ÄM 21299
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Seyfried (2012)




Amenhotep III Amenhotep III Amenhotep III



Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

King Amenhotep III


Circa 1 390 BC - 1 352 BC

Bust of King Amenhotep III. This fragment belonged to a seated pair statue of the king and his wife, Queen Tiye. Originally it stood in Amenhotep's mortuary temple in Western Thebes. The building was apparently devastated by an earthquake some 150 years later, in the reign of Mereneptah. The statue was then moved and reused in Mereneptah's own mortuary temple nearby.

Head and upper torso of monumental limestone statue of Amenhotep III wearing nemes. The nemes is the striped headcloth worn by pharaohs in ancient Egypt. It covered the whole crown and back of the head and nape of the neck (sometimes also extending a little way down the back) and had lappets, two large flaps which hung down behind the ears and in front of both shoulders.

Height: 1523 mm

Catalog: Limestone, Thebes, EA3
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia


Amenhotep III
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

King Amenhotep III


Circa 1 390 BC - 1 352 BC

The bust above has been recently identified as one of the upper parts of a pair statue of Amenhotep III and queen Tiye, the lower part of which has now been re-erected in Merenptah's mortuary temple. Merenptah reused many blocks and statues from Amenhotep III's temple.

Catalog: Limestone, Thebes, EA3
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Poster, British Museum
Text: Poster at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Amenhotep III
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

King Amenhotep III


King Amenhotep III wearing the blue crown.

The khepresh was an ancient Egyptian royal headdress. It is also known as the blue crown or war crown. New Kingdom pharaohs are often depicted wearing it in battle, but it was also frequently worn in ceremonies. It used to be called a war crown by many, but modern historians refrain from defining it thus. The khepresh was made of cloth or leather stained blue and was covered with small yellow sun discs. It was represented in hieroglyphs. As with many other royal crowns, it featured a uraeus fastened to its front.

The earliest known mention of the khepresh is on the stela Cairo JE 59635 (CG 20799) which dates to the reign of pharaoh Neferhotep III, during the Second Intermediate Period. After Amenhotep III's reign – and particularly during the 18th and 19th Dynasties – it came into fashion and was even adopted by some pharaohs as a primary crown. The crown ceased to be depicted in the Kushite Dynasty (747 BC to 656 BC).

During the New Kingdom, pharaohs were shown with this crown in military circumstances. However, some scholars think that the crown was also meant to evoke the divine power of the pharaoh, and was thus worn to religiously situate kings as manifestations of gods on earth.


Catalog: Limestone, West Thebes, Tomb of Chaemhat, ÄM 14442
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia




Sandstone stela of Usersatet
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Usersatet from Kush


Sandstone stela of Usersatet, an Egyptian Viceroy of Kush, from Wadi Halfa, circa 1 430 BC. Abyssinia, or Ethiopia, was known as Kush to the ancient Egyptians.

Usersatet makes offerings to the god Thoth, Lord of Ta-Seti (Nubia). Below is a funerary prayer to Thoth. Usersatet served under Pharaoh Amenhotep II.

Catalog: EA623
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0






Temple relief Temple relief
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Queen Tiye


Fragment of a relief representing Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep III.

Circa 1375 BC

Relief fragment with representation of Queen Tiye from a stele of Amenhotep III.

Painted sandstone, 375 x 360 x 75 mm.


Attached to the hood is the symbol of the Upper Egyptian crown goddess, the head of a vulture, as well as the royal serpent, the Uraus, carrying the crown of Upper Egypt. The fragment was part of the gable of a stele.

Tiye came from a ' bourgeois ' family of provincial officials. She was chief queen during the entire reign of Amenhotep III. This special significance can be seen, for example, in the pictorial representations, in which she replaced the royal mother as the most important woman at court. She occupied an almost equal position beside the king, both in public appearances and in correspondence with foreign rulers, but without denying her non-royal origin.

As noted by O'Connor, Cline (1961):

' The unprecedented thing about Tiyi. ... is not where she came from but what she became. No previous queen ever figured so prominently in her husband's lifetime. Tiyi regularly appeared besides Amenhotep III in statuary, tomb and temple reliefs, and stelae while her name is paired with his on numerous small objects, such as vessels and jewellery, not to mention the large commemorative scarabs, where her name regularly follows his in the dateline.

New elements in her portraiture, such as the addition of cows' horns and sun disks - attributes of the goddess Hathor - to her headdress, and her representation in the form of a sphinx - an image formerly reserved for the king - emphasise her role as the king's divine, as well as earthly partner. Amenhotep III built a temple to her in Sedeinga in northern Sudan, where she was worshiped as a form of Hathor ... The temple at Sedeinga was the pendant to Amenhotep III's own, larger temple at Soleb, fifteen kilometres to the south (an arrangement followed a century later by Ramses II at Abu Simbel, where there are likewise two temples, the larger southern temple dedicated to the king, and the smaller, northern temple dedicated to the queen, Nefertiry, as Hathor) '.

Catalog: Painted sandstone, mortuary temple of Amenhotep III, ÄM 23270
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, K. Finneiser at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: O'Connor, Cline (1961)




Amenhotep III and Tiye

The reign of Amenhotep III marked the beginning of a new political era with a strong focus on diplomatic relations with neighbouring peoples and an economic upturn in Egypt. Amenhotep III was unconventional in the choice of his 'Great Royal Wife', Tiye, who was in fact a commoner by birth.

The royal couple had two sons. The first-born, Thutmose, died young, leaving the second-born to succeed his father to the throne as Amenhotep IV / Echnaton. Tiye supported her son who raised her status from that of a queen mother to that of a goddess by reworking her famous head statue.

dsc06982queentiysm dsc06983tiysm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Queen Tiye


Head of a statuette of queen Tiye with double feather crown, 225 mm high.

Circa 1 355 BC

Tiy was the spouse of King Amenhotep III and mother of Akhenaten. This small portrait was probably produced in the last years of rule of her husband because the queen is shown at an advanced age. The artist produced a realistic face which captures the personality of Tiy: Intelligent, determined and assertive, all qualities which are also evident through historic-literary sources.

After the death of Amenhotep III and still in the lifetime of Tiy the head was reworked, the originally head scarf of silver with the gold uraeus was covered with several layers of linen which were decorated with small faience beads. A crown consisting of a sundisc, cow horns and a pair of feathers was added separately.

Catalog: Yew wood, silver, gold and faience inlays, Medinet el Gurob, ÄM 21834, ÄM 17852
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, K. Finneiser at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.egyptian-museum-berlin.com/c52.php






img_2396tiyesm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Queen Tiye


Closeup of the double feather crown of queen Tiye.

Circa 1 355 BC

This type of crown is usually worn by goddesses or deified queens. By adding this crown to the statue Akhenaton raised his mother, already in her lifetime, into the realm of a goddess. The crown was rediscovered in our collection after having been separated from the head for many years .

Catalog: Yew wood, silver, gold and faience inlays, Medinet el Gurob, ÄM 21834, ÄM 17852
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, K. Finneiser at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.egyptian-museum-berlin.com/c52.php






dsc07138thothmosesm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Prince Thothmose


Prince Thothmose / Thutmose lying on a bier (with sarcophagus)

Circa 1 360 BC


Thutmose (or, more accurately, Djhutmose) was the eldest son of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye, who lived during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. His apparent death led to the reign of Akhenaten, his younger brother - as the successor to the Egyptian throne - and the intrigues of the century leading up to Ramesses II, the start and ultimately the failure of Atenism, the Amarna letters, and the changing roles of the kingdom's powers.

Catalog: Steatite and limestone, VÄGM 1997/112
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia


dsc07887thothmosebiersm dsc07888thotmosebasesm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Prince Thothmose


Prince Thothmose lying on a bier (with sarcophagus)

Circa 1 360 BC

Catalog: Steatite and limestone, VÄGM 1997/112
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_2615tjel_ipaysm img_2615tjel_ipaysm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Tjel and Ipay


Statues of Tjel, Mayor of Memphis from the reign of Amenhotep III, right, with the statue of his wife, Ipay, left.

Circa 1 360 BC.

( note that these objects may be thought of as small statues or as large ushabti - Don )

Dimensions of Tjel statue: 1120 x 350 x 260 mm, circa 75 kg.

Dimensions of Ipay statue: 1080 x 340 x 260 mm, circa 75 kg.


Tjel, or Tjenuro, was the Mayor of Memphis and his wife Ipay was the chantress of Amun, the Royal Nurse. The statues are of mummiform design. Lady Ipay is represented as the god Osiris (complete with beard).

Catalog: AST 14, AST 15
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden, http://www.rmo.nl/
Additional text: Schneider and Raven (1981), Schneider and Raven (1999)


ushabtiplinthsm

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Tjel and Ipay


The statues have been stabilised by a pin in the base of the statue, projecting into the plinth below. Shown here is the pin of Ipay.

Length pin: 40 - 50 mm, average diameter of plinth hole: 28 mm.

Catalog: Saqqara, limestone, AST 14, AST 15
Photo and text: http://www.rmo.nl/
Source: Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.




img_2398scribesm dsc07562headofscribesm


dsc07562headofscribesm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head of a scribe, figure of an unknown man.


Circa 1360 BC

Catalog: Quartzite, ÄM 23150
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Sekhmet Sekhmet Sekhmet


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Sekhmet


Black granodiorite statue of the lion-headed goddess of healing, circa 1 370 BC. Probably from the French excavations in the temple of Mut at Karnak near Thebes or from the excavations of the British proconsul Henry Salt.

The following description is dependent on the identification of this statue as EA88, the card does not specify the Catalog number, and unfortunately there is no photograph of EA88 in the Catalog.

The description of EA88 in the Catalog tallies well with this statue, as does the findspot. The description is as follows:

Granodiorite seated statue of Sekhmet.

The sides of the throne are decorated with the motif of binding the plants of the Two Lands and the throne is also inscribed on the front edges with the names of Amenhotep 3. The left hand holds an ankh-sign; the right is much restored. The front of the plinth and the feet is all restoration, as is each side of the solar disk headdress. There is a join with some restoration at the base of the collar. Pink crystals are evident in the grey granite of the face.

Height 210 cm, width 55 cm, depth 104 cm.

Catalog: Karnak (Thebes), Temple of Mut, catalog number probably EA88
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, http://www.britishmuseum.org/




Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Amenhotep-Huy


Canopic chest of Amenhotep-Huy. It is made of a single piece of quartzite, and is thus an extremely expensive object. It came to Leiden in 1829 as part of the large collection of Giovanni d'Anastasy.

Amenhotep-Hoey was chief steward of Memphis, at the time of pharaoh Armenhotep III.

The box has the shape of a chapel. The canopenkist stands on a sledge foot frame, a shape inspired by the usual mode of transport during the funeral procession. On the sides are the four sons of Horus and the goddesses Isis, Nephthys, Neith and Selkis. The four vases (originally at least) contained the embalmed corpse entrails, but in any case they are not the original vases, which were probably broken and destroyed by grave robbers.


Under King Amenhotep III  (1 388 - 1 350 BC) he was, after the vizier or viceroy, the most important official in the capital of Memphis. His main task was that of manager of the royal estates. He was also active as a builder. In that capacity Amenhotep-Hoey supervised the construction of a new temple to the Memphite city god Ptah and the placement therein of a large image of his royal master. Additionally Amenhotep-Hoey was involved in the administration of the treasure house and granary.

Material quartzite and alabaster, location Saqqara, circa 1 370 BC.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Additional text: http://www.rmo.nl/onderwijs/museumkennis/verhalen/canopenkist-van-amenhotep-en-canopen-van-ipy


 ebony mask  ebony mask
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Ebony Face


Face from an anthropoid coffin

18th Dynasty, circa 1400 BC - 1300 BC. Provenance unknown. Length 228 mm.

The face is carved from East African ebony ( Dalbergia melanoxylon ), one of the most highly prized products of the lands to the south of Egypt. The use of such an expensive wood for this coffin-face suggests that the owner was a person of high status. The eyes and brows were originally inlaid.


Catalog: EA6885
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Horus Horus
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Horus


Standing-striding statue of the god Horus.

New Kingdom, circa 1 360 BC

Catalog: Granodiorite, Theben-West, Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III / Amenophis III (?), Gl.WAF 22a
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Meryptah


Tomb stela of Meryptah, Late 18th dynasty, circa 1 360 BC, from Memphis.

This is only the upper half of the stele, the rest is located in London, see below. Meryptah is pictured second from left. Like his brother Ptahmes beside him he carries the zijlok, the side lock of hair, and chest insignia of the high priests of Ptah. The brothers may be flanked by their proud parents. Djehoetymes' father wears the high-necked robe neckband of a vizier or viceroy. On the far right is another priest of Ptah.


Meryptah was the Chief Steward of the mansion (Temple) of Amenhotep III and brother of the High-priest of Ptah in Memphis Ptahmose, Martin (1991). A stela mentioning Meryptah and relatives is spread over two museums. The top part is on display in Leiden, as shown here, while the bottom part is in the Petrie museum. Depicted are the parents Thutmose (Vizier) and his wife Tawy, with the two brothers Meryptah amd Ptahmose between them. To the right is an additional priest.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Additional text: http://mathstat.slu.edu/~bart/egyptianhtml/tombs/Saqqara-Tombs-NK.html


Meryptah
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Meryptah


Tomb stela of Meryptah, Late 18th dynasty, circa 1360 BC, from Memphis.

This is the lower half of the limestone stela of Meryptah, Chief Steward of the mansion (Temple) of Amenhotep III and High Priest of Memphis, Ptahmose, located in London at the Petrie Museum.

Rectangular frame and cavetto cornice.

Photo and text: Original, http://mathstat.slu.edu/~bart/egyptianhtml/tombs/Saqqara-Tombs-NK.html




Palace Floor
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Palace Floor


Fragment of a Palace Floor.

Circa 1 350 BC.


Catalog: Painted plaster, Amarna, South Palace, ÄM 15335
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


Bust of Queen Nefertiti
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Nefertiti


Bust of Queen Nefertiti

Nefertiti was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. Nefertiti and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshiped one god only, Aten, or the sun disc. Together Akhenaten and Nefertiti were responsible for the creation of a whole new monotheistic religion which changed the ways of religion within Egypt.

With her husband, she reigned at what was arguably the wealthiest period of Ancient Egyptian history. Some scholars believe that Nefertiti ruled briefly as Neferneferuaten after her husband's death and before the accession of Tutankhamun, although this identification is a matter of ongoing debate.

She was made famous by her bust, now in Berlin's Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum. The bust is one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. It was attributed to the sculptor Thutmose, and it was found in his workshop. The bust is notable for exemplifying the understanding Ancient Egyptians had regarding realistic facial proportions.

Circa 1 355 BC, dimensions 490 x 245 x 350 mm.


Catalog: Painted limestone, stucco, wax, rock crystal, ÄM 21300
Photo: Philip Pikart
Permission: GNU Free Documentation License
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia


img_2272nefertitism img_2246nefertitism
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head of a statue of Queen Nefertiti

18th Dynasty circa 1345 BC

Dimensions: 240 x 160 x 163 mm.

Granodiorite, grey, painted.

This head is also identified with a royal lady due to the slightly accentuated frontal ligament and the pin serving as crown attachment. But this head did not function as part of a composite statue, but rather the broken lower side of the neck, as well as the rest of a backpost, reveal that this piece originally belonged to a large, life-sized statue carved from a block.

On the long cone on the head was presumably a head-covering, which extended far backward, and the recesses at the level of the temples also indicate a blue hood, which was typical of Nefertiti, was placed on the head. Dorothea Arnold therefore defines this type as a 'partial composite statue'.


Lips and the part of the statue above the head are painted red, slight traces of black painting are still preserved in the eye and brows, which served as a preparation for further elaboration. The nasal tip is broken, and the ears also do not seem to be finished. Compared to Nefertiti's other pictures, the eyes are narrower and the mouth wider, the cheeks are set below the temples. These traits indicate a late work of the Amarna period.

Catalog: Amarna, ÄM 21358
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia


img_2260headsm img_2260headsm img_2260headsm


img_2260headsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Unfinished head of a statue of Queen Nefertiti.

Limestone, painted, 300 x 180 x 210 mm.

This unfinished statuary head with corrections by the sculptor is described as a portrait of Nefertiti due to numerous design criteria, but especially because of the typical crown approach. Since Borchardt's interpretation of the colored bust as a sculpture model, both heads have been related to each other and the completed work has been regarded as the model for this.

Even if the first sight of the unfinished queen is at first astonishing for many viewers, and is almost repulsive and confusing to many a visitor, the approach and mode of operation of the ancient Egyptian artisans unfolds in an exemplary fashion in this piece.


The already very advanced blank had already in the face and the neck a very good smoothing of the surface, while the coarser chisel marks on the ears and on the crown neck were still left raw. The eyes and the eyebrow bead had already been set so precisely that they were enclosed and painted with accurate lines as a safe reference point for further work. The nose and mouth as well as the tendons on the neck seem to be quite close to being complete, but obviously some corrections have to be made. In order to mark the places to be remodelled, the sculptor drew the questionable parts in the face with skilful, sweeping brush strokes.

These included the missing, slight furrow in the middle of the forehead; The folds of the eyes at the inner corner of the eye; The elaboration of the left ventricle, a straightening of the nasal bridge, the missing nasolabial folds, a correction of the lips that are too full, as well as a more delicate modelling of the slightly recessed cheeks - especially on the left side of the face - and the missing neck folds.

On the chin and around the mouth as well as on the upper lip one can already recognise the next processing step by means of fine, small chisel marks. How many such corrections this statuary head had already passed through can not be estimated, but the unfinished head shows in comparison to the completed bust and to the gypsum model head of the queen (ÄM 21349, below) that reliable model templates in the workshop were indispensable to the set goal of a perfect, though idealised, image of the queen.

Catalog: Circa 1340 BC, Amarna, Painted Limestone, ÄM 21352
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, K. Finneiser at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Seyfried (2012)


dsc06949akhenatensm dsc07563akhenatensm


dsc06953akhenatensm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head of Akhenaten


Circa 1340 BC.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Catalog: Amarna, plaster, gift of James Simon 1920, ÄM 21348
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




DSC09631facesm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


Fragment from the face of a colossal statue of Pharaoh Akhenaten, circa 1 350 BC.

Catalog: Sandstone, Karnak, Aton-Tempel, ÄS 6290
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




dsc07564nefertitism
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head of Nefertiti


Circa 1340 BC.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Catalog: Amarna, plaster, gift of James Simon 1920, ÄM 21349
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_2264headprincesssm dsc07914nefertitism



Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head of Nefertiti (?)


Circa 1345 BC - 1 340 BC

Plaster model of the head of a king or a queen, 240 mm x 112 mm.

From the time of Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten.

This under life-sized head belongs to the round plastic studies of the royal portrait heads. The identity of the person depicted is unknown, but it must be a king or a queen, because the cast has unmistakable royal features: a crown band and the start of a crown over the temples. While Roeder classifies the head as a representation of Nefertiti, the thesis that this is a prince can not be confirmed.

Neither princes nor princesses wore this type of crown in ancient Egypt. Head and neck were both found separately in room 19 of house P 47.2. The face is more weathered on the right half and may have been exposed to the air for a long time on this side. In this example, deepened eyebrows and eye sockets are visible. These recesses come from the original and were originally intended to hold inserts made of other materials. The assumption is obvious that these examples are direct impressions of statues. Likewise, it is likely that many plaster portraits served as models or as exercise pieces in the sculpture workshops.

Catalog: Stucco, P 47.02 ( Amarna / P 47 / P 47.01-03) Room 19, ÄM 21353
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: © Jung, M., in: F. Seyfried (ed.), In the Light of Amarna. 100 years find of Nefertiti, Berlin 2012, p. 326 (Cat. # 113)




Mettlen (2012)

dsc07902headsm img_2248nefertitism
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head of a statue of Queen Nefertiti or Queen Merit-Aten.

Circa 1340 - 1335 BC.

Painted quartzite, 290 x 149 x 165 mm.


The top projection of this head served for the attachment of a royal head covering, which is attributed to a queen. Frequently this piece is identified with Nefertiti, who appears here with the soft features of her young years. As a part of a composite statue, the head is included in the series of three further images of Nefertiti (ÄM 21300, ÄM 21358, ÄM 21263), which were found in the workshop of Thutmose.

Dorothea Arnold assigns the production of these heads to different sculptors, but asserts that this head was still in its processing phase. In further steps, polishing and presumably painting of the head were to be completed, as indicated by the perfectly curved lips, which had a touch of red. The slightly sharp cheek muscles, the dimples around the corners of the mouth, and the wider nose give the somewhat rounded head very natural, but idealising features. The youthful freshness of the piece makes some researchers assign this image oto Merit-Aton, daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti.

This 'splendid piece', described by Borchardt, was found in Room 19, just before the passage, which led to the 'large courtyard' of P 47.2 / 3 and was later walled. Many of the plaster models found appeared in the immediate vicinity.

Catalog: Amarna, Painted Quartzite, ÄM 21220
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, K. Finneiser at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Mettlen (2012)




nefertiti
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Nefertiti


Standing-striding figure of Nefertiti.

Dimensions 405 x 80 x 170 mm, circa 1 355 BC

This statue of the Nefertiti, broken into several fragments, was found in the same room in which the brightly painted bust of the queen came to light. According to the records of Borchardt, the base was first recovered with its feet, which then later led the other fragments. All fragments were in close proximity to the site of the great Akhenaten bust (ÄM 21360).

A deliberate destruction of the sculpture, as in the case of the royal bust, can not be proved, since the delicately modelled face is not damaged. On the other hand, the damaged nipples give the impression of a conscious intervention. Except for the missing right forearm and the damaged areas in the left shoulder area, the statuette was completely reassembled with some additions to the calves.

The figure impresses in every detail by its incredible naturalness. According to the later Amarna style, Nefertiti is reproduced as a mature woman with clear wrinkles around the eyes and prominent incisions around the corners of the mouth. Only the eye and mouth received a colour accent. As a headdress, Nefertiti carries the typical, wide-waisted dome, which is typical of her - besides the helmet crown - into which a separately worked Uraeus snake was fixed as a royal protection symbol, as can be seen by the hole over the forehead and hood band.


The Queen also has two disc-shaped earrings. The shoulders and upper body are slightly flexed and the upper body with the slightly hanging breasts, due to the slightly forward-headed head, which is further underlined by the round, wide-reaching pelvic and abdomen and the full thighs. Also typical of the sculptures during the Amarna period are the extremely flexed knees, the wearing of sandals - even in royal personalities - and the slightly outward-facing foot position.

Had the garment not been shown at the right shoulder, as well as the fine black line of the neck-collar over the breasts, one could guess the body to be naked. This misleading impression is further emphasised by the accentuated abdomen and the abdominal folds over the pubis. It is, however, one of the perpetual, ancient Egyptian representational conventions to emphasise the femininity of a person in her perfect physicality as opposed to clothing, which in this example has succeeded to the utmost in this image of the older queen and mother.

Catalog: Painted limestone, Amarna, ÄM 21263
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, F. Seyfried at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


nefertiti and akenate
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and their three daughters


Dimensions 335 x 395 x 35 mm, circa 1 355 BC

This plaque in bas-relief is the altar of a shrine. It shows the royal couple in an intimate scene with their children, and above them is represented the god Aton as a sun-disc with a multitude of radiation arms directed towards the earth and ' signs of life '. The depiction shows an intimate, tender family scene of the ruling couple together with their princess children.


( note the distortion of the face that was fashionable during the reign of Akhenaten, particularly in bas-relief sculptures, with an elongated chin the most obvious effect on adults, possibly because of Akhenaten's long chin. This and other differences in portrayal are known as the Amarna style, which was extant during and just after the reign of Akhenaten. Akhenaten moved the royal capital to the city now known as Amarna and erected a number of palaces and temples there.

Both Akhenaten and Nefertiti had elongated heads, as did their female children, and their son Tutankhamun. See also the sculpture of a princess below, thought to be of one of his children. The elongation is due to heredity, and is known as dolichocephaly. Nefertiti is thought to be a half-sister to Akhenaten, and they shared the elongated head, as did Akhenaten's father and grandfather, Thutmose III and Thutmose II. Further information can be obtained at the website

http://www.soul-guidance.com/houseofthesun/elongatedskulls/elongatedskullsafrica.html

 - Don 
)

It is widely believed that King Akhenaten had an illness called Marfan's Syndrome. Today, Marfan's Syndrome affects about one in 5 000 people and is a genetic disorder that involves the body's connective tissue. Depictions of the king and his family reveal that they displayed some of the symptoms of Marfan's Syndrome. Symptoms include an elongated head, neck, arms, hands and feet, a pot belly and heavy thighs, poor muscle tone and a short torso. The illness tends to make people very tall and many die at an early age because of weakened aortas that are prone to rupture.

King Akhenaten is the first Pharaoh to have insisted that sculptures, paintings and other depictions of him and his family be real depictions instead of the strong, muscular-looking depictions of pharaohs in the past. The innovative depictions gave the artists of the time freedom to portray the royal family in real-life events,
(as above) something that had never happened before.

Text above: https://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/akhenaten.html

Catalog: Limestone, Amarna, ÄM 14145
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: https://www.psychologytoday.com/au/blog/how-we-do-it/201907/strange-head-shapes-revisiting-nefertiti-akhenaten-and-tut, Wikipedia



This is an excellent summary of the life and times of Akhenaten, by Marsha Hill of the Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art (The Met):
https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/amar/hd_amar.htm

Nefertiti disappears from the historical record around the 12th year of Akhenaten's 17-year reign. She may have died at that point, but it is possible she became her husband's official co-regent under the name Neferneferuaten. Akhenaten was followed as pharaoh by Smenkhkare, who some historians suggest may have been another name for Nefertiti. This would not have been without precedent: In the 15th century B.C. the female pharaoh Hatshepsut ruled Egypt in the guise of a man, complete with a ceremonial false beard.

If Nefertiti kept power during and beyond Akhenaten's last years, it is possible she began the reversal of her husband's religious polices that would reach fruition during the reign of King Tut. At one point Neferneferuaten employed a scribe to make divine offerings to Amun, pleading for him to return and dispel the kingdom's darkness.
Text above: https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/nefertiti


akhenaten
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Nefertiti and Akhenaten


Stela: Royal couple at feast.

Circa 1 345 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, ÄM 17813
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




akhenaten
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Nefertiti and Akhenaten


A stroll in the garden.

Circa 1 345 BC.

Catalog: Painted limestone, Amarna, ÄM 15000
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




akhenaten
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten's daughter


Head from a statue of a daughter of Akhenaten.

Circa 1 345 BC.

Catalog: Quartzite, Amarna, Ä5 1628
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München







akhenaten


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


Temple relief: Akhenaten beneath the rays of the sun god Aten / Aton. Aten is not in its usual human form, but abstract, as the rays of the sun, circa 1350 BC.

Dimensions: 445 x 225 x 50 mm.

Catalog: Painted sandstone, Karnak, Aton-Tempel, ÄM 31283
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Meyer-Dietrich (2017)


dsc07152nefertiti_temple_reliefsm


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Nefertiti


Temple relief: Nefertiti beneath the rays of the sun god Aten / Aton. Circa 1350 BC.

Catalog: Painted sandstone, Karnak, Aton-Tempel, ÄM 31284
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


akhenaten


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


Fragment of a relief: Akhenaten / Amenhotep IV at his jubilee.

Here Akhenaten is once again shown below the rays of the sun god Aten. He wears the distinctive white crown of upper Egypt, which may have been passed from one Pharaoh to the next, since there are no extant examples of the crown. Circa 1348 BC.

Catalog: Painted sandstone, Karnak, Aton-Tempel, ÄM 30509
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


akhenaten


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


Fragment of a relief: Akhenaten with olive branch.

Circa 1 353 - 1323 BC.

In this fragment only the beautifully carved left hand of Akhenaten remains, holding a heavily laden branch of olives that appears to be caressed by the hands of the sun's rays.

The entire scene would have shown the king standing directly beneath the sun disk, facing what appears to be the olive tree from which he may have cut the branch. The upper boughs of the tree are to the right along the lower edge of the block. The text in the upper right has been intentionally destroyed, leaving only a few traces of the hieroglyphs.

This relief is currently on long-term loan to the Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung in Berlin in exchange for two heads in plaster that were excavated at Amarna.

Dimensions: Height 22 cm.

Catalog: Painted sandstone, Armana, 1981.449
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany, on loan from the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/544057


akhenaten


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


Fragment of a Temple relief: Lower Face and Shoulders of Akhenaten.

Circa 1 353 - 1336 BC.

Provenance: From Middle Egypt, Hermopolis (Ashmunein; Khemenu), Pylon of Ramesses II, foundations level, Deutsche Hermopolis-Expedition 1938; Probably originally from Amarna (Akhetaten)

Dimensions: 210 mm x 345 mm

Catalog: Painted limestone, Amarna, 1985.328.3
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany, on loan from the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/549203


akhenaten


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Nefertiti and Akhenaten


Part of a stela: Nefertiti ties an an ornamental collar around Akhenaten.

Circa 1 345 BC.

Catalog: Painted limestone, Armana (?), ÄM 14511
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


akhenaten


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Nefertiti and Akhenaten


Temple relief: Nefertiti behind Akhenaten, worshipping Aten.

Circa 1 345 BC.

Catalog: Painted limestone, Armana, ÄM 19781
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


DSC06257akhenatenassphinxsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


Akhenaten portrayed as a sphinx, circa 1 340 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, Inv. Nr. 1964.3
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




akhenaten


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


Fragment of a temple relief: Akhenaten makes sacrifices to the god Aten.

Circa 1 345 BC.

Catalog: Painted limestone, Armana (?), ÄM 22265
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


akhenaten akhenaten


akhenaten akhenaten


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


Bust of Akhenaten. Limestone (painted and gilded) with reversible modern additions.

This impressive bust was originally intended to be placed in a sanctuary for the adoration of the king. It was found earlier than the queen's bust, and was already cut into several pieces in antiquity.

The voids between these fragments have now been partially filled in order to stabilise the bust and to approximate the state in which it was found by Borchardt on 6th December 1912. The reconstruction of the lost mouth is temporary. It has only been added for the period of this special exhibition.

Dimensions 570 x 450 x 350 mm, circa 1 351 BC - 1 334 BC.

Catalog: Painted, gilded limestone, Amarna, P 47 / P 47.01-03 (estate), Room 19.01, ÄM 21360
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


akhenaten akhenaten


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


Torso of a standing-strinding figure of Akhenaten.

1 351 BC - 1 334 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, ÄM 15081
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


akhenaten
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Hands


Pair of hands from a group statue of Akhenaten and Nefertiti or two princesses, circa 1 350 BC.

Catalog: Quartzite, Amarna, House P 49.6, ÄM 20494
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


akhenaten
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Nefertiti and Akhenaten


Unfinished stele of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, circa 1 345 BC.

This first rough out of a stela shows Queen Nefertiti pouring wine into a goblet for her husband. The Blue Crown of Nefertiti with the royal uraeus shows that Nefertiti had achieved an improvement in status in the late phase of her husband's reign. This also correlates with the statuette of Nefertiti in Berlin ÄM 21263 which depicts Nefertiti with a cap crown, and a Uraeus metal tiara once attached, and with her at a somewhat advanced age. They prove that at least part of the reign of Nefer-Neferu-Aton (Nefertiti) can be placed as being parallel in importance to that of Akhenaten.


Catalog: Limestone, Amarna, ÄM 20716
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Habicht (2014)


Akhenaten
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


The relief shows the head of Pharaoh Akhenaten, which is turned to the right, in the style of the early years of the so-called ' Amarna period '. To this new, expressive, almost caricature-like mode of representation belong the overly long, convexly curved neck, the full lips and the lengthened chin, as well as the narrow eye. The earlobe is pierced by a hole. Neck and nasolabial folds are marked with scored lines. The shape of the king's crown cannot be determined.

Dimensions: 155 x 115 x 32 mm, circa 1 345 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, Amarna, ÄM 14512
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, F. Seyfried at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


box
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Vessels for eye-paint (kohl)


Vessels for eye-paint (kohl) in the shape of palm columns, circa 1 340 BC.

Catalog: Glass, ÄM 32257, ÄM 32258
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


Akhenaten
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


Relief portrait of King Akhenaten, circa 1 340 BC.

This is described as a sculptor's model in Ertman (2013)

Catalog: Limestone, Amarna, ÄM 21683
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




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Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Portrait bust of Akhenaten


Circa 1345 BC, 260 x 150 x 200 mm.

Akhenaten is the Pharaoh in Thomas Mann's Joseph trilogy:

'He looked like an aristocratic young Englishman of somewhat decadent stock', wrote Mann, 'spare, haughty, weary, with a well-developed chin which yet somehow looked weak, a nose with a narrow, rather depressed bridge which made even more striking the broad, sensitive nostrils; and deeply, dreamily overshadowed eyes with lids he could never open quite wide. Their weary expression was in disconcerting contrast to the unrouged, morbid brilliancy of the full lips . . .'

The lower end of the headband on this sculpture was subsequently marked by a thin coloured line. The eyebrows and the edges of the eyes are also painted black. Fine lines mark the upper eyelid furrows, the nasolabial folds, the nose wings and nostrils, thus providing a lively, overall visual impression.

At the temples, the recesses for the crown neck are visible, the structure of the blue crown being visible on the left side. In the nape of the gypsum model, a perpendicular crown was formed. The cast was presumably made from two moulds, as one can still see remnants of a retouched centre seam on the forehead and the overlying band. A statuary head apparently served as a model for this sumptuous sculpture, from which the sculptor made a true-to-scale copy. Presumably, this portrait head is a ready-made model and view piece in a workshop.

Catalog: Painted plaster, Amarna, ÄM 21351
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Jung (2012b)




akhenaten
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Horse


Relief study of the head of a horse, circa 1 345 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, ÄM 23717
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




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Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Foot


Relief study of a human foot, circa 1 345 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, ÄM 20672
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Temple relief


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Temple relief


Falcon-headed sun god Aten and King Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten

Circa 1353 BC

Akhenaten was known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV, and Amenophis is the Greek form of the name Amenhotep.

Dimensions: 720 x 1510 x 270 mm

This relief block from Karnak probably dates from the first two years of Amenhotep IV, and is one of the few examples that show the Pharaoh in the traditional manner in Thebes. The relief is divided into two picture panels separated by a vertical inscription line. On the left is a falcon-headed sun god, and on the right Amenophis IV with the blue crown. The iconography in the representation corresponds to the style of Amenophis III.

The face of Amenophis IV / Akhenaten is very similar to that of his father. The inscriptions, on the other hand, tend already towards the new religious ideas, and the sun-disc above the head of Amenophis IV with the signs of life at the lower edge are the forerunners of a motif which is one of the best known in the Amarna period: The god Aton represented by a sun-disc, the rays of which flow into hands and hold signs of life.

Catalog: Painted sandstone, Karnak, Temple of the god Amun, 10th pylon (secondary installation), ÄM 2072
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text, included on http://www.smb-digital.de/ : Jung (2012a)




akhenaten
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


Three cartouches bearing the name of King Akhenaten and the god Aten.

Length 210 mm, circa 1340 BC.

These bronze cartouches of King Akhenaten and his god Aton were excavated by Borchardt on January 6, 1913, in the so-called ' obscure house Q 47.10 '. The excavator presumed an original placement in the palace or a temple of Achet-Atons. In his opinion, the place of discovery suggests that the objects were ' carried away for the precious metal ' in order to reuse them. Due to the thickness of the material, it can be assumed that the cartouches were originally set into stone or wood. Their size is an indication that it must have been a door frame or the like. A break runs through all three cartridges, which suggests that they may have been forcibly removed from their original position.


The smallest cartouche on the left shows the name of the Akhenaten in the following form: ' The only one of the Re who is beautiful in appearance of the Re '. The two others are assigned to the god Aton. There he bears the name ' Long live the Aton, ruler of the two horizons who rejoice in the light country ' with the addition ' in his name as Re, the father who has come out as Aton '. This is the later version of the god's name, which previously contained names of other gods, which finally had to give way in favour of the sole naming of the Aton.

Catalog: Bronze, Amarna, Haus O 47.10 ÄM 22082/1-3
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Weber (2012)


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Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head of a princess.


Head of a statue of a princess, probably a daughter of Akhenaten, without inlays. 210 mm.

Circa 1345 BC

The Princess's head was discovered in the 'large courtyard' of P 47.2 / 3, just a few metres north of the Wall of P 47.1. In its immediate vicinity a royal statuary head (Acts 21222) had been found earlier. According to Borchardt's diary entries, it lay 'face up, embedded in hair'.

The polished portrait is very similar in form and material to the head ÄM 21364, which was found in 1911 near the sculptor's workshop. In contrast to the latter, the surface of the back part of the sculpture is polished to a smoother finish. The facial features of the princess are based on the representation of her father Akhenaten: a long face, a pronounced chin and a curved neck. The head was intended for a composite statue, having a pin below the neck. Paint residues in the creases as well as the recesses of the eyes and eyebrows suggest that this statuary element had already been painted and provided with inlays of faience, glass or precious stones, but these were removed when taken from the workshops of Achet-Aten.


Catalog: Amarna, Quartzite, P 47.2 / 3, ÄM 21223
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wegner (2012)




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Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head of a princess.


Dimensions: 147 x 117 x 140 mm


According to Ludwig Borchardt's diary, the 'very pleasing find' of a princess's head came to light in a group of small houses near the famous sculptor's workshop. There it was discovered in a shed in the main living area 29. Based on this finding, Borchardt assumed that this was the home of a sculptor. In his opinion, the small room could have been used as a storage place for unfinished work. But he also stated the possibility 'that the head from another workshop was taken here'.

The head of the princess, damaged on the nose, mouth and ears, closely resembles the portrait ÄM 21223, which was discovered in P 47.2. The skull has a protruding shape on all sides, which Borchardt calls 'pronounced hydrocephalus' in his diary. The prepared eye sockets and eyebrows were intended for coloured inserts made of glass, faience or stone.

The fine lines of the eyelids may have been filled with a coloured paste. It is striking that the side and back of the skull, unlike the face, have not yet been polished. The cheekbones and skull bones as well as the muscle attachments on the back of the head are clearly shown to be in accordance with that of the royal family.

From: Tauschner, L., in: F. Seyfried (Hrsg.), Im Licht von Amarna. 100 Jahre Fund der Nofretete, Berlin 2012, S. 262 (Kat.-Nr. 41).

Catalog: Amarna, Quartzite, O 49.13, (small group of houses), ÄM 21364
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


img_2252headcloseup
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Statuette of a princess.


Statuette of a princess with a sacrificial plate.

Circa 1 351 BC - 1 334 BC

Height x width x depth: 224 x 86 x 110 mm.

Weight: 985 g.


During Akhenaten's reign, permissions for private sacrifices were greatly restricted. The pharaoh himself was now - even more prominently than in earlier times - the chief priest and therefore the only one authorised by Aton to carry out acts of sacrifice. At most, Nefertiti and their daughters were still authorised to do this. The royal family was also allowed to carry out sacrificial and consecration processions. This statuette of a princess, whose curly hair can still be seen in remains on the right shoulder, bears an unlabelled sacrificial plate. This form of representation of the act of sacrifice is an assumption of fertility and Nile gods. This also refers to the earthly gift of swelling the Nile and ensuring a rich harvest.

After: Rattmann, A., in: F. Seyfried (Hrsg.), Im Licht von Amarna. 100 Jahre Fund der Nofretete, Berlin 2012, S. 234 (Kat.-Nr. 22).

Catalog: Quartzite, Amarna, N 47.06 (homestead), ÄM 21690
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


img_2252headcloseup img_2252headcloseup
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


Unfinished statue of Akhenaten standing with a sacrificial plate in his hands.

Circa 1 340 BC.

Height x width x depth: 1060 x 252 x 275 mm.




This unfinished statue of Akhenaten with a blue crown was purchased in 1992. The statue is still in 'rough working' condition and has remnants of red and black markings. The king originally held a sacrificial plate in his hands, the fracture surface of which is clearly visible ( now restored - Don ).

Two fragments of hands holding a sacrificial plate were found in Achet-Aton during the excavation of Ludwig Borchardt. The size and material of these fragments match the status of the stand exactly, which is why they can be viewed as belonging and are now included in the reconstruction. However, the two fragments come from different houses in Achet-Aton. Although the buildings belong to the same 'building block', they are not directly adjacent. It is unclear how the two fragments of the sacrificial plate got into different houses.

The statue type of the sacrificial plate carrier was an innovation of the early 18th Dynasty and was used in both private and royal sculptures. In his manifestation as visible light, the god Aton was able to receive the offerings directly. Offering sacrifices in the open air was therefore particularly important in the Amarna period. This is borne out by numerous depictions in relief and statues of the sacrificing Akhenaten and his entire family.

From: Taschner, L., in: F. Seyfried (Hrsg.), Im Licht von Amarna. 100 Jahre Fund der Nofretete, Berlin 2012, S. 232 (Kat.-Nr. 21)

Catalog: Limestone, Amarna, ÄM 34437
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


dsc07134twinprincesssm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Merit-aten and Meket-aten


Fragmentary pair-statue, Merit-aten and Meket-aten, daughters of Amenophis IV / Akhenaten.

Circa 1 345 BC

Catalog: Limestone, ÄM 20718
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf


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Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

A Princess


Statuette of a Princess.

From the reign of Akhenaten.

( note the elongated head, seen clearly in the left hand image, which almost certainly means that it is of one of the daughters of Akhenaten and Nefertiti - Don )

Circa 1 345 BC

Catalog: Calcite-alabaster, ÄM 17951
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf


dsc07133threeheadssm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Heads of Princesses


Three small heads of princesses.

Circa 1 345 BC

Catalog: ÄM 29595, ÄM 25575, ÄM 22034
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


dsc07916headofqueensm dsc07915royalwomansm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Queen's head


Reign of Akhenaten.

Dimensions: 110 x 68 x 85 mm.


The under-sized head shows a royal woman whose identity is unknown. The face has an oval shape, a strong nose and full lips. Remains of black paint can be found on the unfinished eyes and eyebrows. Traces of red paint have also remained on the lips. The youthful-looking face is characterised by slightly lowered upper eyelids, which, together with the flat transition of the not yet pronounced tear ducts to the cheeks, give rise to the 'veiled look' that has been mentioned many times. The indentations on the forehead and temples were probably intended for a wig or crown, which would also explain the missing ears on the head and suggests that this head was part of a composite statue.

The thesis put forward in the literature that this is Kija, Akhenaten's well-known co-wife, or Merit-Aton, a daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, cannot be clearly decided. However, the facial features preclude assignment to Nefertiti.

From: Jung, M., in: F. Seyfried (Hrsg.), Im Licht von Amarna. 100 Jahre Fund der Nofretete, Berlin 2012, S. 346 (Kat.-Nr. 127).

Catalog: Quartzite, painted, Amarna, P 47.02, P 47 / P 47.01-03 (estate), room 19, ÄM 21245
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


img_2394astronomertaitaism
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Yoke pendant


Yoke pendant of a chariot, beads with magic symbols of health.

Circa 1 340 BC - 1 334 BC

This ancient Egyptian chain dates to the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaten. It was found in 1911 during the excavations of the German Orient Society under the direction of Ludwig Borchardt in Tell el-Amarna. The modern site is located on the remains of the ancient settlement of Achet-Aton (translated: Horizon of Light), the new residence founded by Pharaoh Akhenaten, which is today scientifically researched by the Amarna Project under the leadership of the British Egyptologist Barry Kemp.


The chain with a total length of 95 cm consists of 35 beads with a diameter of 25 to 31 mm, with black paint protection symbols painted on the balls. Eleven beads carry the 'Udjat eye', 24 beads show a stylised representation of an iris with pupil - also known as 'fish eye'. The modern threading of the juxtaposed Udjat eyes can be considered assured. Another bead stands out in its appearance. On one side it shows an ankh, symbolizing 'life' and 'power'. This is located between two Was-Scepters, an ancient Egyptian symbol in the form of a staff. It has a stylised animal head at the top, is forked at the bottom and has either a straight or wavy shaft, and they are usually handed over by the gods to the kings and stand as a symbol of power or luck.

Catalog: Tell el-Amarna, faience, painted, Tell el-Amarna, house N 51.03, stable, ÄM 21944
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: https://blog.smb.museum/35-mal-goettlicher-schutz-ein-alt-aegyptisches-jochgehaenge/, Wikipedia


house51_3sm house51_3sm


(left) House N 51.3, with stables marked in red.

Photo: L. Borchardt, H. Ricke: The houses in Tell el-Amarna, Scientific publication of the German Orient Society 91, Berlin 1980, Plan 110
Proximal source: https://blog.smb.museum/35-mal-goettlicher-schutz-ein-alt-aegyptisches-jochgehaenge/

____

(right) Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti on the chariot: the yoke hanger fastened to the harness of the horse is marked in red.

Source: N. Davies, The Rock Tombs of El Amarna, Part III, The Tombs of Huya and Ahmes (Archaeological Survey of Egypt, Fifteenth Memoir), London 1905, Pl.
Proximal source: https://blog.smb.museum/35-mal-goettlicher-schutz-ein-alt-aegyptisches-jochgehaenge/




dsc07121stelasm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Relief block


Relief block with the cartouches of the god Aton. Dimensions: 200 x 160 x 55 mm.

Catalog: Painted limestone, Amarna, N 49.06 (small houses), ÄM 20720
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


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Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Votive plaque


Votive plaque or relief stele for the god Aten / Aton.

Small holy table with kneeling king and cartouches of Aton, Akhenaten and Nefertiti.

In the 6th year of his reign, Akhenaten changed several parts of his name and had the god Amun replaced by Aton /Aten. The pharaoh appears on the dedication tablet (ÄM 2045), as the life-giving god Shu. In this function, he raises the two cartouches with the name of the god Aton and thus converts the meaning of the word Schu into an active action, since the word in addition to the meaning 'sun; light' can also mean 'to raise'. This implementation can also be found in his changed Goldhorus name: 'Who raises the name of Aton.' In front of and behind the pharaoh are his two names in cartouches and the cartouche of his royal consort Nefertiti. The function of the object has not been clarified.

From: Rattmann, A., in: F. Seyfried (Hrsg.), Im Licht von Amarna. 100 Jahre Fund der Nofretete, Berlin 2012, S. 236 (Kat.-Nr. 24).


Catalog: Calcite alabaster (travertine), provenance unknown, ÄM 2045
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


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Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


Standing figure of Akhenaten holding an uninscribed stela.

Circa 1 351 BC - 1 334 BC

Dimensions: 120 x 30 x 60 mm.

Sacrifice and consecration were integral parts of the cult of the gods. During Akhenaten's reign, the possibility of private victims was largely restricted. The pharaoh himself was now - even more exposed than in earlier times - the chief priest and therefore the only one authorised by Aton to perform acts of sacrifice. At most, Nefertiti and their daughters were still authorised to do this. The royal family was also allowed to carry out sacrificial and consecration processions.


The type of stelophora, a figure carrying stelae, was developed under Hatshepsut. This new type occurred exclusively in Thebes West and became further developed in the reign of Amenophis III as a standing figure. It originally belonged to private sculpture, and in connection with the sun hymn it can also be found in Theban tombs. Akhenaten also used this type for royal presentations and wears the Blue Crown for this piece, which is only a decorative element and cannot be assigned to any cult role. It is remarkable that the pharaoh appears barefoot, which does not correspond to the normal royal regalia.

From: Rattmann, A., in: F. Seyfried (Hrsg.), Im Licht von Amarna. 100 Jahre Fund der Nofretete, Berlin 2012, S. 234 (Kat.-Nr. 22).

( note also that an uninscribed stela is quite unusual, at least for larger, more massive figures of this type, and that the sculptor has shown Akhenaten's (visible) leg as being directly beneath his elbow, seemingly not in its correct position on the body - Don )

Catalog: Calcite-Alabaster, Amarna, N 48.15 (houses) ÄM 21835
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


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Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head of a king.


Head of a king with a blue crown. Circa 1 351 BC - 1 334 BC

Reign of Akhenaten.

Dimensions: 100 x 60 x 79 mm.


The statuette head was found in the paved courtyard on the east wall of P 47.3. Also discovered there was a small alabaster falcon's head, the head and associated torso of a sandstone princess statue and the fragment of an Uraean frieze. Due to the blue crown, the statuette head can be attributed to a male, royal person. The attachment of the back pillar is preserved at the back of the headdress.

On the forehead, the elongated recess of the front body of the uraeus snake, which is made of a different material, is clearly visible. There are traces of red paint in the corners of the eyes and at the base of the crown. Remains of black painting are visible on the eye contours. At the top of the neck the portrait has two folds, which are typical of the depictions during the Amarna period. Despite missing elements that are important for dating such as the mouth and nose, the almond-shaped eyes and the modelling of the facial features speak for a portrait from the late Amarna period.

In this phase, the protruding cheekbones, the elongated face and the slit-shaped eyes were replaced by softer features. Statuettes like this may also have been used in private settings. There they could have served as mediators to Aton in small chapels and were themselves the subject of cult worship.

Catalog: Limestone, Amarna, P 47, P 47.01-03 (estate), ÄM 21200
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Taschner, L., in: F. Seyfried (ed.), In the light of Amarna. 100 Years Discovery of the Nefertiti, Berlin 2012, p. 384 (cat.no.173), via http://www.smb-digital.de/


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Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Tutankhamen or Akhenaten


Standing-striding figure of either Tutankhamen or Akhenaten.

1 340 BC - 1 330 BC.

( The card on this statue in the Neues Museum says that this is either Tutankhamen or Akhenaten. If the choice is between Tutankhamen or Akhenaten, then to my mind this must be Tutankhamen. A young man is portrayed, and the distinguishing features of Akhenaten are quite absent. The nose and chin are not those of Akhenaten. The online catalog of the Neues Museum, however, identifies it as Akhenaten, as in the text below - Don )


Statuette of the King Akhenaten, dimensions 260 x 75 x 133 mm.

The left arm is stretched out, straight down and held slightly in front of the body. The hand is also stretched out flat. In contrast, the right arm is angled in front of the body and the hand is clenched in front of the chest. The two sceptres, the crook and flail, were probably in the hand.

The head is directed forward and shows almond-shaped eyes, which are highlighted by black and white colour, broad brow arches, a delicate nose and a full, red painted mouth. The moustache and whiskers were painted black. The ears are far behind and are set very high. The sitter is crowned by the blue crown, which was worked separately, and the associated headband.

These as well as the sceptres, which must be inferred, mark the man as king, possibly Akhenaten. On the base, nine captive enemies are reproduced, over which the pharaoh passes and thus, figuratively, annihilates them. The enemies are the three large neighbouring groups of Egypt: Nubians, Asians and Libyans.

The described object was bought in Luxor in 1918 by Ludwig Borchardt for James Simon, who donated it to the Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection in Berlin. Although the exact origin is not known, it is likely that statuettes of the king and his family were placed in private shrines of the royal couple in Amarna in their own shrines.

Text above: Jessica Jancziak, In: J. Helmbold-Doyé - J. Jancziak (Hrsg.), Wechselnde Identitäten. Eine Ausstellung mit Werken von Gleb Bas, Sonderschrift der Ägyptischen Sammlung (SÄS) 4, Berlin 2015, S. 48

Catalog: Wood, paint, partially gilded, Amarna, ÄM 21836
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


Tutankhamen
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Tutankhamun


The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter of Tutankhamun's nearly intact tomb, funded by Lord Carnarvon, received worldwide press coverage. It sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamun's mask, now in the Egyptian Museum, remains the popular symbol. Exhibits of artefacts from his tomb have toured the world. In February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that he was the son of the mummy found in the tomb KV55, believed by some to be Akhenaten. His mother was his father's sister and wife, whose name is unknown but whose remains are positively identified as 'The Younger Lady' mummy found in KV35. The 'mysterious' deaths of a few of those who excavated Tutankhamun's tomb have been popularly attributed to the curse of the pharaohs.

Since January 1, 2016 it is possible again to take photographs in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The funerary mask of Tutankhamun is certainly the most popular exhibit.

Catalog: JE 60672
Photo: Roland Unger, GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
Source and text: Cairo Museum, Wikipedia


The mask is 540 mm tall, 393 mm wide and 490 mm deep. It is fashioned from two layers of high-carat gold, varying from 1.5 to 3 mm in thickness, and weighing 10.23 kg (22.6 lb). X-ray crystallography has revealed that the mask contains two alloys of gold: a lighter 18.4 karat shade for the face and neck, and 22.5 karat gold for the rest of the mask.

This mask of Tutankhamun is an example of the highest artistic and technical achievements of the ancient Egyptians in the New Kingdom. Covering the head of the wrapped mummy in its coffin and activated by a magical spell, no.151b from the Book of the Dead, the mask ensured more protection for the king's body.

The exact portrayal of the king's facial features achieved here made it possible for his soul to recognise him and return to his mummified body, thus ensuring his resurrection. The head is covered by the royal headdress and the forehead bears the emblems of kingship and protection: the vulture and uraeus, or cobra.

The gold sheets used in this wonderful mask are joined together by heating and hammering. The eyes are of obsidian and quartz and the eyebrows and eyelids are inlaid with lapis lazuli. The broad inlaid collar of semiprecious stones and coloured glass ends in falcon heads.

The face represents the pharaoh's standard image, and the same image was found by excavators elsewhere in the tomb, in particular in the guardian statues. He wears a 'nemes' headcloth, topped by the royal insignia of a cobra (Wadjet) and vulture (Nekhbet), symbolising Tutankhamun's rule of both Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt respectively.

The ears are pierced to hold earrings, a feature that appears to have been reserved for queens and children in almost all other surviving ancient Egyptian works of art. It contains inlays of coloured glass and gemstones, including lapis lazuli (the eye surrounds and eyebrows), quartz (the eyes), obsidian (the pupils), carnelian, feldspar, turquoise, amazonite, faience and other stones (as inlays of the broad collar).

When it was discovered in 1925, the 2.5 kg narrow gold beard, inlaid with blue lapis lazuli, giving it a plaited effect, had become separated from the mask, but it was reattached to the chin using a wooden dowel in 1944. In August 2014, the beard fell off when the mask was taken out of its display case for cleaning. The museum workers responsible used quick-drying epoxy in an attempt to fix it, leaving the beard off-centre. The damage was noticed in January 2015, and has been repaired by a German-Egyptian team who reattached it using beeswax, a natural material used by the ancient Egyptians.

Additional text: http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/record.aspx?id=15062




Tutankhamen
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Tutankhamun


This is the rarely depicted rear view of the mask above.

A protective spell is inscribed with Egyptian hieroglyphs on the back and shoulders in ten vertical and two horizontal lines. The spell first appeared on masks in the Middle Kingdom, 500 years before Tutankhamun, and was used in Chapter 151 of the Book of the Dead.

Osiris was the Egyptian god of the afterlife. Ancient Egyptians believed that kings preserved in the likeness of Osiris would rule the Kingdom of the Dead. It never totally replaced the older cult of the sun, in which dead kings were thought to be reanimated as the sun-god Re, whose body was made of gold and lapis lazuli. This confluence of old and new beliefs resulted in a mixture of emblems inside Tutankhamun's sarcophagus and tomb.

Although it is usually removed when the mask is on display, it has a triple-string necklace of gold and blue faience disc-beads with lotus flower terminals and uraeus clasps.

Photo: qwelk, Public Domain
Source and text: Cairo Museum, Wikipedia




Tutankhamen
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Tutankhamun


The king presents an abundance of offerings including lotus blossoms, bunches of grapes, pomegranates, and ducks hung by their feet. These are for 'his father Amun-Ra', the god in whose temple the statue was placed.

The facial features are Tutankhamun's, but the text on the back-pillar attributes the statue to Horemheb, who usurped it after taking the throne. He erased from every monument the memory of Tutankhamun and other rulers linked to the despised Armuna Period.

Circa 1 336 BC - 1 327 BC.

Catalog: Thebes, Karnak, temple of Amun-Ra, granodiorite, EA75
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




This is a granodiorite figure of Tutankhamun, wearing a royal 'nemes' headcloth, false beard, beaded broad collar, and elaborately pleated kilt, who steps forward to present a chest-high pillar that once tapered toward the statue base (now lost). The three exposed surfaces of the pillar are decorated with low raised relief depicting lotus blossoms, bunches of grapes, pomegranates, sheaves of grain, and clutches of bagged ducks hung by their feet. An adjoining fragment from the lower part of the statue preserves the umbels of papyrus plants that "grew" from the base on the proper left side of the sculpture. This may be a depiction of the pharaoh in the guise of the god Hapi, who embodied the Nile in flood. The back-pillar is inscribed.

Dimensions: Height 1677 mm, width 480 mm, depth 720 mm.

Inscription Translation:
There lives the perfect god [i.e., the king] who does what is beneficial for his father Amun-Re, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt Djeserkheperure-Setepenre, the son of Re Hor[emheb] beloved of Amun ...

One column of incised hieroglyphs. Both cartouches with Horemheb's name are original, and the rest of the inscription provides no evidence of usurpation, which has led Egyptologists to accept this sculpture as an original work of his reign. The text continues on another similar statue now in the Cairo Museum.

Curator's comments: Although the cartouches give Horemheb's name, the face does not exemplify Horemheb's physiognomy, nor the style peculiar to his reign. The features and the way they are rendered evoke Tutankhamun's portrait in sculptures that can now be assigned with confidence to the later years of his reign. This sculpture would seem, then, to have been made for Tutankhamun. Either the back pillar had remained uninscribed during Tutankhamun's lifetime and was thus free to receive Horemheb's text when he ascended the throne, or Horemheb's sculptors usurped it for their king by cutting down the surface to remove completely any trace of an original text naming Tutankhamun.

Text above: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/

Tutankhamen Tutankhamen
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Tutankhamun


Views from the side and the back of the Tutankhamun statue.

Circa 1 336 BC - 1 327 BC.

( note in particular the great similarity between the treatment of the back of the head and hair/wig of this statue and the back of the famous gold mask of Tutankhamun, shown above - Don )

Catalog: Thebes, Karnak, temple of Amun-Ra, granodiorite, EA75
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, http://www.britishmuseum.org/
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Tutankhamen boomerang



Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Tutankhamen boomerang


When Tutankhamun's tomb was opened, Carter found many weapons such as bows, arrows, throw sticks and boomerangs in the Annex of the tomb.

The boomerang was used in ancient Egypt in all periods primarily to hunt fowl in the marshes. Scenes of tomb owners, about to hurl the weapon, were part of the artists' repertoire as early as the Old Kingdom (2 700 - 2 150 BC). A depiction of the king hunting is on the left side of the golden shrine. There, Tutankhamun stands in a papyrus skiff in the marshes, the boomerang in his right hand and captured birds in his left.

This faience boomerang bears the inscription of Tutankhamen, as well as images of the Wedjat eye, and a lotus bloom. This boomerang was not part of Tutankhamun's tomb effects, however, and is of unknown provenance.

Dimensions: 380 x 50 x 22 mm.

Catalog: Unknown provenance, faience, AD 19
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden, http://www.rmo.nl/
Additional text: http://www.touregypt.net/museum/boomerangpage.htm




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dsc07901tutsm


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Bust of a king, circa 1335 BC.

Limestone, painted, 215 mm.


This limestone bust, much discussed in the literature, decorated with red and black paint, shows a king in his youth. The status is clearly visible on the royal headbands, while the temporal assignment (age) is ensured by the style of the object. However, it is uncertain as to its identity, since Semenchkare comes into consideration alongside the possibility of it also being either Akhenaton or Tutankhamun.

It is probably a bust of King Tutankhamen.

The neck collar is marked with three black, curved lines but lets red colouring show through in some places, suggesting that chain links were indicated. The short neck is marked near the chin by two folds, which are among the typical styles of the time. The soft, round face and the slight nasolabial folds indicate the youthfulness of the pharaoh. The physiognomy follows the tradition of the safely assigned portraits of Akhenaten, which points to one of his successors. The comparatively small and narrow eyes are framed by a still partially preserved ink stroke. The eyes were originally painted and not intended for inlays. The thick black eyebrows frame the upper part of the face of the king. Since there is no pin at the back of the bust, it is to be assumed that this portrait would be provided with a wig or a headscarf instead of a crown to reach the appropriate height. The house P 49.6, from which the object originates, is a sculptor's workshop.

Catalog: Limestone, painted, Amarna, P 49.06 (Sculptor's workshop), ÄM 20496

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




   mask    mask
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Mummy-mask


Painted wooden mummy-mask of an unidentified woman.

Late 18th Dynasty, circa 1 350 BC - 1 295 BC, from Thebes / Luxor.

The mask is made from the wood of the Sycomore fig. The outer rows of the collar are composed of lotus petals and fruits or berries. Perforations in the ear-lobes for the suspension of ear-rings have been carefully represented.

Height 410 mm, width 330 mm, diameter 215 mm.


Catalog: EA22912
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




stela of Ipoe
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Stela of Ipoe


Tomb stela of Ipoe (Ipu), cupbearer to the king, 18th Dynasty.

Circa 1 333 BC - 1 323 BC, during the reign of Tutankhamun

Dimensions 129 x 85 x 21 cm, circa 450 kg.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Catalog: AP 9
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.




dsc07565taitaism img_2394astronomertaitaism
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Taitai


Standing-striding figure of the priest and astronomer Taitai, or Tchaichi.

Circa 1323 BC -1319 BC

Tchaichi is wearing a short robe, as well as the priestly leopard fur, whose head rests on the front of the belt. Below is a pocket for an instrument, which identifies the wearer as an astronomer.

275 x 80 mm.

Catalog: Greywacke, Limestone, ÄM 17021
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.jenseits-des-horizonts.de/downloads/pressebilder/




Egypt


Egypt

Temple Wall panels from the private tomb of the Great Commander of the Army, Horemheb, showing him receiving 'gold of honour' collars.


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Horemheb


Horemheb was the military force behind the throne in the aftermath of the Amarna Period. He was general in the army during the reigns of Tutanchamon and Aye, after this he himself became pharaoh and abandoned this tomb for a tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden
Text: adapted from http://ancientpeoples.tumblr.com/post/50495250530/saqqara-saqqara-is-the-most-important-cemetery






Horemheb

Close up of part of the panel above.

Dimensions: 860 x 1090 x 195 mm
Photo and text: Google Arts and Culture


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Horemheb


Horemheb was the supreme commander of Tutankhamun's armies. Four years after the latter's death, he himself ascended to the throne as pharaoh. A magnificent tomb at Saqqara dates from his period as general. The National Museum of Antiquities owns two series of wall reliefs from the second courtyard of the grave complex. Here, Horemheb is being presented with gold gorgets in gratitude for his victories on the battlefield. On the left, Egyptian soldiers are bringing in some Asian captives. 1 333 BC - 1 319 BC. Size 860 x 1090 x 195 mm

Photo: Google Arts and Culture, https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/horemheb-grave-relief/-gHrFrcniOR5Ow
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden
Text: Google Arts and Culture, https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/horemheb-grave-relief/-gHrFrcniOR5Ow


Maya and Horemheb

At the time of the young pharaoh Tutankhamun the true power was in the hands of two experienced officers. Treasurer Maya looked after domestic administration, and General Horemheb regulated foreign policy.

Both top officials built tombs in the desert at Saqqara. These graves were found around 1825 by art collectors. Through the art market the reliefs of Horemheb and the tomb statues of Maya and his wife Meryt were taken to Leiden.

Since 1975 the National Museum of Antiquities conducted excavations in the necropolis of Saqqara. Both the tomb of Maya as well as that of Horemhab have now been recovered. Thus we now know much more about these treasures.

Text above from a display at the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.



Maya Maya
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Maya


Maya was an important figure during the reign of the Pharaohs Tutankhamun, Ay and Horemheb of the eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt. Maya's titles included: fan bearer on the King's right hand, overseer of the treasury, chief of the works in the necropolis, and leader of the festival of Amun in Karnak.

From: Sakkara circa 1 325 - 1 310 BC 18th Dynasty.
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden
Additional text: Wikipedia




Egypt Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Meryt


Meryt, shown here, was the wife of Maya. Like many significant women she carries the title 'singer of Amun'. In her hands she holds a menat: a necklace of many strings of beads with the counterweight, a figure of the goddess Hathor, normally worn on the back, shown here in her hands. This might be used also as a rattle in the supervision of temple hymns.

From: Sakkara circa 1 325 - 1 310 BC 18th Dynasty.
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden
Additional text: Wikipedia




Door frame and stela of  Hatiay
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Door frame and stela of Hatiay


Hatiay was the supreme sculptor of the pharaoh. He built a chapel for himself at the shrine of Osiris at Abydos, during the period of Tutankhamun-Horemheb, at the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty.

This round door opening has beautifully carved figures and hieroglyphs, still showing remnants of gold leaf. The memorial stone would have been placed against the back wall of the chapel.

Dimensions: 1225 × 245 × 245 mm.

Catalog: limestone, Abydos, circa 1 330 - 1 320 BC, AP 14c
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden, http://www.rmo.nl/




Egypt Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Maya and Meryt


This Tomb statue shows Maya and Meryt side by side. Meryt (on the left) embraces her husband. These images are among the best created by Egyptian artists. The three sculptures shown here are all from Maya's tomb, where they stood on pedestals beneath the galleries around the inner court.

From: Sakkara ca 1325 - 1310 BC 18th Dynasty.
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden
Additional text: Wikipedia




img_4132tombreliefsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Meri-Ptah


Relief from the burial chamber of Meri-Ptah, from the necropolis of the New Kingdom of Saqqara

The tomb owner Meri-Ptah, high priest of Ptah in Memphis, appears as a sower; the large size of this figure corresponds to his rank. The sower of grain, Meri-Ptah is depicted in a garment made of fine pleated linen. He attained the highest office of priesthood in Memphis.


In his job he is assisted by men arranged in two registers behind him. In the upper row is a man in a stooped posture, who holds out his bag of seed, and behind him is a group of servants who hoe the weeds. A bovine team with the words 'go, run' is driven to hurry. Two men, one of them with a writing utensil, advance. The name of the tomb owner has been preserved on the upper text line as well as the beginning of a tomb saying: 'You go for a walk among them, you go with the Horus servants, you come out ...'.

Circa 1 300 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, Saqqara, inv. H 1046
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe Germany
Additional text: http://www.moin-monja.de/egypt/Museen/karlsruhe_museum/karlsruhe_museum-b/karlsruhe_museum-2.htm from the writings of Kurt Sethe, Egyptologist.




Maya Maya


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Maya


Maya was a high official of the provincial administration. He was appointed governor and chief of the priests by King Thutmose III whose name is on the chest and right upper arm, in the 10th Egyptian Region. There, in the necropolis of the capital, his grave was also found, from which this figure may originate.

Maya sits upright on a simple stool. The text lists the names and titles of Maya, as well as the sacrificial formulas addressed to the local gods. He is dressed in a short robe, which was originally worn only by kings, but later also by private people. In his clenched right hand he holds a so-called 'sweat cloth', while the left lies flat on the apron.

The round, expressive face is, like the whole figure, very formally constructed. A wig, corresponding to the fashion of the time, has been carefully placed over his head. The two gold chains around his neck, as well as the massive upper and lower gold arm bands, are awards which the king had given him for previous military successes.

Dimensions: 740 x 215 x 400 mm.

Catalog: Limestone, Achmim (?), ÄM 19286
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Senenmut
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Senenmut and Princess Neferure


Block Statue of the steward Senenmut with Neferure / Nefrurê.

This cuboid statue represents a man seated with his arms encircling his drawn up knees. His cloth garment is stretched tight against the lines of his arms and legs. He is balanced on a thick base, now partly broken. The head of a child, whose body is hidden within the taut folds of his clothing, emerges from his embrace. The flat panel formed by the fabric between his legs is covered with finely incised hieroglyphs.

The text reveals the identity of the man, Senenmut, who served as the highest official in Egypt during the reign of Queen Hatshepsut. The child on his lap is the princess Neferure, shown with a sidelock hairstyle (characteristic of children in ancient Egypt) and a uraeus on her forehead (marking her royal status). This is one of eight statues of Senenmut that pair him with the princess Neferure, daughter of Hatshepsut. Despite the fact that he must have been at least middle-aged, Senenmut is depicted here as a youthful man, with a smooth, idealised face.


Senenmut
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Senenmut and Princess Neferure


More than 20 statues depicting Senenmut, the most favoured and influential person during the reign of Queen Hatshepsut, were found in the Karnak cache. Eight of them portray Senenmut with Princess Neferure, the daughter of Queen Hatshepsut.

This statue shows the nobleman with the features of a young man: full cheeks in a smooth round face, wide-open eyes with long lashes executed in relief, large ears, and a small, straight, full mouth. As Senenmut was her tutor, the princess' head emerges from his mantle. An indication of her position as heiress to the throne, the child wears her hair in the pleated tress characteristic of royal children, ornamented with the uraeus. Her name, inscribed within a cartouche next to her head, is preceded by the title ' god's wife ', most probably Amun-Re. This honorary and religious title began to be borne by unmarried princesses from now on and was wide spread in the Late Period.

The sides of the statue were ideal for a long text, listing Senenmut's numerous titles and functions in connection with the palace and with the cult of Amun.


Circa 1 475 BC, height 130cm. Found during excavations of the ' cachette ' in the court of the 7th pylon.

By the New Kingdom, most cuboid statues (also called ' block statues ') were set up in temples. They were inscribed with texts that offered prayers for the person depicted, providing their owner with a permanent presence within the temple's sacred halls, courts, or chapels.

Catalog: Grey granite, Thebes/Karnak, ÄM 2296
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: © C. Zarnoch, E. Sullivan, http://dlib.etc.ucla.edu/projects/Karnak/resource/ObjectCatalog/1841
Additional text: http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/record.aspx?id=14859




img_2310sm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

False door of Senenmut


False door of Senenmut, steward of Queen Hatshepsut.

Circa 1480 - 1460 BC.

Catalog: Thebes-west, Sandstone, ÄM 2066
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




flagellum
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Figure with a flagellum


Figure of a military person holding the handle of a flagellum.

Amenhotep III / Amenophis III (?)

A flagellum was a flail or rattle to drive away evil spirits. It could only be used by a pharaoh and was a symbol of royal power.

Catalog: Wood, ÄM 14134
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.touregypt.net/flagellum.htm




coffin of Katebet


coffin of Katebet


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Mummy of Katebet, circa 1 300 BC.


The mummy of the woman Katebet was discovered in the 1820s in a tomb at Thebes, together with the mummy of a man named Qenna, possibly her husband.

Catalog: Thebes, EA6665
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




mummy of Katebet
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Katebet


Mummy of Katebet, circa 1 300 BC.

Her fine gilded cartonnage mask represents Katebet wearing wearing an elaborate wig with calcite ear-studs, a broad collar, bracelets and real finger-rings. Analysis of the surface decoration of the trappings has revealed almost pure gold leaf on the mask. The white metal of the pectorals is not silver, but pure tin. The shabti is of low-fired ceramic or clay, with applied gesso and gold leaf on the head, and copper foil on the torso. At the time of the discovery, the coffin also contained plaits of hair wrapped in linen, a pair of sandals and floral garlands, the last two items now lost.

Catalog: Thebes, EA6665
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




mummy of Katebet


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Katebet


Mummy of Katebet, circa 1 300 BC.

The mummy of the woman Katebet was discovered in the 1820s in a tomb at Thebes (Luxor), together with the mummy of a man named Qenna, possibly her husband. Like Katebet's wooden coffin, the two pectorals and shabti figure placed on her mummy appear to have been designed for a man and adapted for her burial.

Catalog: Thebes, EA6665
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




mummy of Katebet


mummy of Katebet


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Katebet


Mummy of Katebet, circa 1 300 BC.

Pectorals and a shabti were placed on the mummy.

Catalog: Thebes, EA6665
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




amenemhat amenemhat


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Amenemhat


Statue of Amenemhat holding a stela (stelophore), height 345 mm.

Circa 1 500 BC.

( note that the same names keep coming up in the records of Ancient Egypt. There were a number of men called Amenemhat, and it is unclear which one this is - Don )

Catalog: Painted limestone, ÄM 2316
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


Sa-Iset
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Sa-Iset


Stelophore of Sa-Iset

Dimensions: 300 x 145 x 175 mm.


Sa-Iset kneels on the ground. He raises his arms in prayer and touches with his palms the stele standing in front of him. The figure portrayed carries a long apron extending from the hips to the ankles. The head is covered by a hairy wig, which, however, leaves the ears free. A short beard adorns the chin. It is, like the wig, painted black. A reddish-brown hue was used for the skin colour.

The stele is adorned with the symbols for duration (the ring in the middle) and for protection (the two Udjat eyes). This is followed by the text: ' Adoration of the Re in the morning, when he walks on the horizon of heaven, through the goldsmith of Amun, Si-Ese, saying, Rejoice, Re, when you arise, hidden, God-power. Rise. Enlighten the two countries. You are crossing the sky, joyfully, with a great heart in the Mandjet barge, truly complete. '

Catalog: Painted limestone, Thebes-West, ÄM 2314
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


Samut Samut Samut


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Samut


Samut ' son of Mut ', nicknamed Kyky, was a scribe and ' inspector of cattle in the stalls of Amun '. He lived during the reign of Ramesses II. His wife was named Rayay. Excavated in 1959, Samut's tomb has a few interesting scenes, but evidence of the hastiness of execution increases as one moves inside. Relief was virtually not attempted, despite the excellent quality of the stone. Although the colours have suffered considerably from the salinity of the stone, they are still easy to appreciate.

Samut's tomb, N° 409, is situated in West Thebes, in the Assassif, close to the temple of Deir el-Bahari. It was dug and decorated for Samut / Kyky, a civil servant of the time of Ramesses II, of whom we are otherwise ignorant and in particular we do not know how this character, of intermediate rank in aristocracy, succeeded in getting the distinguished honour (and the means by which) to have his burial here. Salt had invaded the south-west corner of the tomb, causing damage to the paintings and the stone itself.

Catalog: Painted limestone, ÄM 2312
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Hodel-Hoenes (2006)
Additional text: http://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/nobles/kyky/e_kyky_01.htm


Sennefer Sennefer


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Sennefer


Block statue of the priest Sennefer.

Circa 1 360 BC.

Sennefer took up his role as Mayor of the Southern City (Thebes) during the reign of Amenhotep II. His cousin, Amenemopet, was Vizier of Upper Egypt, which included Thebes. They both probably owed their position to Ahmose Humay, who actually managed to become overseer of the royal harem and tutor of princes, whilst Nub, his wife, was a lady of the court. These two cousins may have grown up together with the prince, who eventually became king Amenhotep II.

Sennefer's most important title was that of ' Mayor of the Southern City ', which during this period additionally included other cities, their ports and their surrounding lands. Even with this title, his position was subordinate to that of his cousin, who was the vizier and to whom he was responsible for the collection of the taxes of grain and other goods. He also held a great many other titles, found as usual embedded in the inscriptions which accompany the scenes of the walls, ceilings and pillars of both the upper and lower chambers. The list is quite extensive, some being more honorary than practical in nature; but such a long list was not unusual for high officials.

In his autobiography, found on the ceiling of the longitudinal corridor of the upper chambers, he describes himself in the following manner: ' The well-beloved courtier, great of the great ones, the noble dignitary among the courtiers and (of) the Lord of Upper and Lower Egypt, he says: ' I reached the state of venerable old age under the king, in that I was the confidant of the Lord of the Two Lands. The king knew of my excellence and he knew that I did useful things in the service in which he had placed me. He investigated everywhere, but could find nothing bad of me. I was praised because of this and my every need was catered for. He appointed me as chief administrator and Mayor of the Southern City, as overseer of the granary of Amun, overseer of the fields of Amun, as overseer of the gardens of Amun, high priest of Amun in the temple Men-isut (the mortuary temple of Ahmose-Nefertari) ', Mayor Sennefer, justified by the great god '.

( note the image of the goddess Hathor on the front of the block statue, recognisable from the cow ears used to identify her - Don )

Catalog: Granodiorite, ÄM 21595
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/nobles/sennefer/e_sennefer_01.htm


amenemopet amenemopet


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Amenemopet


Block statue of Amenemopet / Amenemope

Circa 1 340 BC.

Block statue of Amenemopet Jmn-m-jpt, Overseer of necropolis-workers in Memphis, with text which mentions the Aten, Hathor, (Ptah-Sokari-) Osiris lord of Shetyt, etc., temp. Amenophis IV (early), in Berlin, Ägyptisches Museum, 31199 (formerly 4/65). (Probably from Memphis.)

Catalog: Limestone, ÄM 31199
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf


DSC09610_AS_7127bsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Funeral Procession


Tomb relief with funeral procession, circa 1 320 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, Sakkara, ÄS 7127
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




DSC09610_AS_7127bsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Imeneminet


Tomb relief: the deceased seated with his wife before an offering table, circa 1 320 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, Sakkara, Tomb of Imeneminet, Gl. 298, SMAEK Inv.No. Eq. 298
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Panehsy


Canopic jars of Panehsy, 18th Dynasty, ca 1300 BC.

Material: limestone, 21 cm.


When someone someone was mummified lungs, liver, stomach and intestines were removed from the abdominal cavity. The bodies were mummified independently , and the organs placed separately in stoppered pots. These pots had lids that represent the four sons of Horus. They look after the mummified organs.

The liver went into a pot with a lid in the form of an Amset (man)
The stomach went into a pot with a lid in the form of a Duamutef (jackal)
The lungs went into a pot with a lid in the form of a Hapy (baboon)
The intestines went into a pot with a lid in the form of a Qebehsenuf (falcon)

Photo: http://www.rmo.nl/collectie/zoeken?object=AH+184-a
Text: http://www.dierenmuseum.nl/dierenliefde/dierenmummies-dierenbegraafplaatsen/




dsc09605nenasm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Nena


Stela of the Royal Archivist Nena, circa 1 300 BC

Catalog: Limestone, Memphis, ÄS 51
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München







img_9952boxsm img_9953shabtism


dsc00345runnerssm


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Canopic Chest


Painted Sycomore fig wooden Canopic Chest and four jars of Neby.

The shape of the box resembles that of a shrine, with a cornice and a sloping roof. It is mounted on sledge-runners, on which it could be drawn into the tomb during the funeral procession. On the sides are the protective figures of the Sons of Horus and the goddesses Isis, Nephthys, Neith, Selkis.

The four jars, also of wood, have stoppers in the form of human heads.

Height 635 mm (chest), height 65 mm (lid), mm, length 800 mm, width 630 mm, weight 3600 grams.

Catalog: Painted wooden Canopic Chest and four jars of Neby, Thebes, EA35808
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




dsc00310mummyclothsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Linen mummy cloth with blue borders

Catalog: Provenance unknown, EA6517
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Text: Card at museum display © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Papyrus of Nakht


Agriculture in the afterlife, from the papyrus of Nakht, circa 1 300 BC.

The ideal state of existence, which the dead achieved after becoming akh, included and agricultural paradise known as the Field of Reeds. Here the blessed dead would plant and reap abundant crops, traverse the waterways of the netherworld, and worship the gods.

From: Book of the Dead of Nakht, frame 13, flax-harvesting vignette, and sixteen columns of Hieroglyphic text.


Catalog: Thebes, EA10471/13
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Figurine


Figurine of a girl holding a kitten, circa 1 380 BC

Mirror handle.

Catalog: Wood, Abusir el Meleq, ÄM 16400
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf




dsc07639bessm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Wine vessel


Wine vessel (funnel neck vessel) in the shape of the god Bes.

Dimensions: 520 x 220 mm.

This large ceramic vessel has a rounded lower body, a drawn-in middle part and a stepped, funnel-shaped neck. The front of the body of the vessel is made in the shape of the god Bes in a semi-plastic shape: the face, arms, navel and the shoulder area are modelled. The contours and details of Bes are marked with multicoloured painting, which is only on the front of the vessel.

The upper body of the blue-skinned, bearded Bes appears with animal ears, mane, wide-open eyes and extended tongue on the body of the vessel, while the funnel-shaped neck is decorated for the typical feather crown of Bes, which here resembles the shape of an open lotus flower. His comparatively short, narrow arms are angled against the front of the body. A stylised flower wreath is attached to his navel. A circumferential band of notched cross lines is located directly below the painting.


The god Bes, with his grotesque-looking features, was a protective god at home for the Egyptians, who was supposed to dispel all evil through his terrible appearance. He also belonged to the circle of the goddess Hathor. In the wake of the Hathor, he was often associated with dance, music and drunkenness. It is therefore suspected that the funnel-necked vessel with the Bes representation may have been used as a wine vessel for festive occasions in which the intoxication was an important component.

Since the painting was done before firing and became waterproof, it could theoretically have been used for the actual use in the preparation and serving of drinks. However due to the elaborate decoration, which is only on the front side, it is more likely that it was primarily used purely for decorative purposes.

Few comparable Bes vessels with blue paint are known. The Berlin specimen proves to be a special piece due to the good condition and the high quality craftsmanship compared to other such vessels.

Text above: I. Liao

Catalog: Amarna (?), ceramic, painted, ÄM 22620
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07641horsejugsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Large vessel


Large storage vessel, painted, illustrated with two galloping horses, Ankh sign and Was sceptre.

From the reigns of Thutmose II - Thutmose IV, i.e. 1 493 BC - 1 388 BC.

Dimensions: 420 x 260 mm

The two piebald horses are in motion as well as harnessed and bearing breast covers. Horses have only been known in Egypt since the second period (around 1 750 BC). They were brought in from Asia by the Hyksos with their chariots and from then on were indispensable for warfare. In addition, there are depictions of an Ankh sign holding two Was-scepters on the vessel, as well as a depiction of a plant bouquet.

Text above: J. Jancziak

Catalog: Provenance unknown, ceramic, painted, ÄM 14412
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Bes headrest Bes headrest


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Headrest


Circa 1 390 BC - 1 295 BC

Folding wooden headrest. The base and shaft have been replaced by two legs in the form of ducks' heads and necks that are pierced by a pivot so that the piece could be folded shut for easy storage and transportation.


Household rituals were important: wealthy houses often had a small shrine to a god or ancestor. A household god like the fierce little Bes was particularly important at times of danger, such as during sleep or childbirth. Images of gods would protect the family, such as 'clay cobras' which one magical text says should be placed in each corner of every room in which there is a man or a woman. In this example, faces of Bes adorn both ends of the curved support, literally cradling the sleeper's head with divine protection. He is depicted with fully frontal face. His features are characteristically lion-like and he has lions' ears, a mane and a tall plumed headdress. His face has thick eyebrows and two flesh folds running along his cheeks, and he sticks his tongue out cheekily.

The legs are riveted and where they cross at their ends duck heads grasp the bottom rails with their beaks. They were once extensively inlaid, but only two slivers of inlay survive.

Height 190 mm, width 194 mm.

Catalog: Akhmim, EA18156
Photo: (left) Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo: (right) © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




dsc07710woodenstelawithfishsm strangerfishegyptsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Unknown man


Stela of an unknown man in front of a sacrificial table with fish.

Dimensions: 385 x 262 x 35 mm.


The formerly painted wooden stele shows in the upper field the sun ship with the falcon-headed figure of Horus in the horizon in the large solar disc. In addition, the inscription: Re-Harachte, the great God, the Gracious , has been added later on the left: Amon-re, lord of the thrones of the two countries, ruling in Karnak, the great god, the beloved, presumably as a contemporary commitment to the restored Amon faith in Akhenaten, which would date the stele to the end of the eighteenth dynasty , a little earlier than most memorial stones with representations of the sun ship from the el-Medine.

Approximately in the middle of the stele area is shown as an illustration to the text below a large flying scarab. The praise of the donor kneeling on the right is not directed to Re as such, but to the variety of its manifestations, which in Egyptian are called cheperu, which is reproduced in the hieroglyphic script with the image of the sacred Beetle Cheper and is connected with its self-creation symbolism.

One of the royal tombs of the New Kingdom is often a litany of 75 such transmissions of the sun god. One of its most secretive figures is that of a Nilfish of the species Mormyros (Hyperopsius Bebe), which is reproduced on this stele on the left seven times over the entrance to a building.

Unfortunately, there is almost nothing left of the certainly equally extraordinary text on the back of the stele. The name of the owner can no longer be ascertained, but only his office is known: as a servant at the site of the truth he belonged to the artisans and artists guild working in the valley of the king's tombs.

Catalog: Wood, ÄM 818
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2018
Photo (right): Sandra Steiß, Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional Text: W. Kaiser, Egyptian Museum Berlin at Charlottenburg Palace (Berlin 1967) p. 77, no. 807.




dsc06860-8440_djehuti-nefersm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Djehuti-nefer


Stele of Djehuti-nefer in front of the god Amun-Re.

Dimensions: 443 mm x 325 mm x 87 mm.


This limestone stele from the Posno Collection was purchased in May 1883 by the Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection Berlin. It is divided into two picture fields, the upper one of which is the founder Djehuti-Nefer ('Thot is beautiful') in front of the gods Amun-von-Karnak, Mut-von-Ischeru (holy lake in the Karnak temple) and a smaller version of Amun -Re.

The lower area represents a series of gods that the viewer has to imagine behind the first protagonists. These are Ptah, the crocodile-headed, anthropomorphic Sobek, a ram-headed Amun and the representation of a human-headed Seth with horns influenced by the Near East. The object dates to the first third of the Egyptian New Kingdom and probably comes from the temple of Karnak.

Catalog: Karnak, Amun temple, Limestone, ÄM 8440
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE), http://www.smb-digital.de/ (A. Weber)




DSC06053shabti_ijesm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Ije

Shabti of lje, circa 1 350 BC

Catalog: Wood
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




img_2682potandladlesm


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC
Cooking pot with ladle and sieve.


Catalog: Ceramic and vegetable fibres, ÄM 13628, ÄM 22363, ÄM 32220


Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC
Models of grapes


Catalog: Deir el-Bahiri and Amarna, Faience, ÄM 23003, ÄM 30829, ÄM 30829, ÄM 30831, ÄM 30832
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07291liddedbasketsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC
Cooking pot with ladle and sieve.


Closeup of the pot and seive above.

Catalog: Ceramic and vegetable fibres, ÄM 13628, ÄM 22363
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07294ladlesm


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC
Ladle


Closeup of the ladle above.

Catalog: Ceramic ÄM 32220
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




DSC06185gravedoorsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC
Grave doorway


Relief block with the grave owner, from the doorway to his grave.

Late 18th dynasty, circa 1 320 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, Saqqara (?), Inv. Nr. 1935.200.186
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




DSC06186frondbearerssm


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC
Four Courtiers


Four Courtiers, frond bearers.

Late 18th dynasty, circa 1 330 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, Saqqara (?), Inv. Nr. 1926.207
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




DSC00611antelopedeitysm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Antelope Deity


Squatting antelope / gazelle (?) headed deity. Late 18th Dynasty, circa 1 295 BC.

Perhaps from the tomb of Horemheb, no 57 in the Valley of the Kings.

This is one of several types of protective figures represented as if turning to confront a potential aggressor. The body of the figure is made from sycomore fig, and the two horns from the wood of the Christ's thorn (Ziziphus spina-christi), both native Egyptian timbers. Black varnish has been applied over a linen base layer.

Dimensions: Height 373 mm, width 400 mm.


The contorted pose of this creature, who sits with its lower half in profile and upper body turned toward the viewer, is eerily menacing, as if the monster were ponderously swinging around to confront an interloper. A divine wig has been used to mask the juncture between animal and human.

The antelope, who inhabited the wild lands of the desert, was considered a creature of chaos, dangerous to the living and enemies of the gods. In the Middle Kingdom, however, they were depicted on jewellery, magical implements, and even children's drinking cups, thus transforming their threat into protective power.

Catalog: Perhaps from the tomb of Horemheb, no 57 in the Valley of the Kings, or Biban el-Muluk (Valley of the Kings - Thebes): Tomb of Thutmose III, EA50703
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




DSC00620ea50702sm DSC00620ea50702sm


DSC00620ea50702sm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Ram Headed Deity


Ram headed deity. Late 18th Dynasty, circa 1 295 BC.

Perhaps from the tomb of Horemheb, no 57 in the Valley of the Kings.

Depictions of similar figures on tomb walls and coffins indicate that this deity originally grasped knives, snakes or lizards in his outstretched hands. Black varnish, applied over a linen base, originally coated the entire figure. A pair of horns was originally attached to the top of the head.

Catalog: Perhaps from the tomb of Horemheb, no 57 in the Valley of the Kings, EA50702
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




DSC00628hippodeitysm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Hippopotamus Headed Deity


Hippopotamus headed deity. Late 18th Dynasty, circa 1 295 BC.

Perhaps from the tomb of Horemheb, no 57 in the Valley of the Kings.

In depictions in tombs and on sarcophagi this figure is sometimes identified as Hememet, which associates her with the goddesses Isis, Nut, and Hathor as protectresses of the dead. The head and body are made from the wood of the sycomore fig. A variety of materials was used to make the teeth, including tamarisk, sycomore fig and probably ivory. A covering of linen was attached, over which black resin has been applied.

Catalog: Perhaps from the tomb of Horemheb, no 57 in the Valley of the Kings, EA50699
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Thebes / Luxor / Luxor Poster
Eighteenth Dynasty or later: 1 550 BC - 1 069 BC

Theban Necropolis


The Theban necropolis in the New Kingdom, which lasted circa 1550 BC - 1069 BC.

Thebes (modern Luxor), a provincial centre in the Old Kingdom, produced families of rulers who reunified Egypt after the political decentralisation of the First and Second Intermediate Periods.


The city was a major royal residence on several occasions, and was the principal cult centre of Amun, the supreme deity of the Egyptian state. The cemeteries of Thebes / Luxor were used extensively from the 4th Dynasty to the Roman Period. They included the tombs of the kings of the 11th and 17th to 20th Dynasties, and those of administrators, craftsmen and priests of all periods.

Most of the private burials were in rock-cut sepulchres, those of the New Kingdom being renowned for the carved and painted wall-decoration of their funerary chapels. Although the majority of these tombs were robbed in antiquity, a substantial number of mummies, coffins and associated burial goods have been recovered from them since the early 19th century.

Photo: Steve F-E-Cameron
Permission: Multi-license with GFDL and Creative Commons CC-BY 3.0
Text: Poster, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




dsc07293grapessm


Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Models of grapes


Closeup of the grapes above.

Catalog: Deir el-Bahiri and Amarna, Faience, ÄM 23003, ÄM 30829, ÄM 30829, ÄM 30831, ÄM 30832
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Egypt



18th to early 19th dynasties: 1 350 BC - 1 400 BC

Head on a sarcophagus

The representation of the face of the deceased was worked separately and attached to the sarcophagus.

Catalog: Wood with painted stucco cover, H 380
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe Germany




img_2680ceramicjarssm
Eighteenth - Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 187 BC

Painted wine vessel with handles
(top)

Catalog: Deir el-Medine, ceramic, ÄM 21327


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Small storage vessel with glazed blue floral pattern of Lotus flowers.
(bottom)

Catalog: circa 1 340 BC, Luxor, ceramic, ÄM 14988

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07390spoonandluteplayersm
Eighteenth - Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 187 BC

Ointment spoons


Drum player and lute player.

Catalog: Wood, Drum player from Memphis (?), Lute player from Medinet Gurob, ÄM 1877, ÄM 17337

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07459_07460riymayasm



Eighteenth - Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 187 BC

Riy and his wife Maya in front of an offering table with priests.


Relief blocks from the wall of the grave of Riy in the necropolis of Saqqara: depicting the lord and his wife at the dining table receiving sacrifices, circa 1 320 BC - 1 290 BC

Dimensions: 967 x 1680 x 100 mm

Catalog: Painted limestone, ÄM 7278
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Nefer-Hor and his wife
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Nefer-Hor


Double statue of Nefer-Hor and his wife.

Catalog: Limestone, ÄM 2303
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc06648hathorsm
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Ancestral Bust


The bust mentions the goddess Hathor.

Catalog: Painted limestone, Deir el-Medine, ÄM 20994
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Sarcophagus of Meryt


Sarcophagus of Meryt


Sarcophagus of Meryt Sarcophagus of Meryt


Sarcophagus of Meryt Sarcophagus of Meryt


Sarcophagus of Meryt Sarcophagus of Meryt


Sarcophagus of Meryt
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Meryt / Meriti / Meri.ti


Sarcophagus of Meryt, official of auxiliary forces, High priest of Rê.


Sarcophagus of Meriti, commander of the chariot contingent, commander of the chariot troop, troop commander, 'Great Warrior of the Chariot Troop', high priest of Rê.

Personal information: Unfortunately, we know very little about Meriti, as there are no other objects known except for his coffin. Due to his offices and titles, one can assume that the coffin originated from Memphis or from the necropolis of Saqqara.

Meri.ti is believed to have held the following positions during his military career: commander of the chariot contingents and commander-in-chief.

Since Memphis had been the largest regimental city in ancient Egypt since the 18th Dynasty and, above all, the large chariot contingents were located there, it is reasonable to assume that Meri.ti would also be active there. This fits with the fact that Meri.ti was obviously rewarded with the role of 'High Priest of Rê' as a pension office, this is not to be equated with the office of 'High Priest of Rê of Heliopolis'.

The massive rose granite sarcophagus consists of a coffin lid and coffin base and is designed in an anthropoid form. The lid shows the stylised, broad and flat face of the deceased with a short beard and three-part wig. Meri.ti holds in his hands a 'Djed' pillar and an 'Isis' knot or tyet, which are the typical emblems in the fists of the arms and hands lying crossed over the chest in the Ramesside period.

The structure of the inscriptions, which are based on large, mummy bandages, is distributed over the abdomen and foot area and corresponds to the common pattern of the Ramessid period. It is striking that the entire coffin lid and some parts of the coffin pan were obviously not completed, but only the first surface treatment on the part of the stonemason after the preparations by the draftsmen were carried out.

The design of the coffin base shows - as expected - a representation of Isis with arms raised with the normal accompanying text at her feet. At the head end, on the other hand, there is not only a picture of Nephthys, but also Neith, so that of the four goddesses, who are assigned to the protection of the canopic chests and which decorate the corners of the royal coffins of Tutankhamen, only the selket is missing.

On the sides, after the characteristic released parts, which are intended to indicate the part of the wig, on the east side, as a reminiscence of the former show-door with the pair of eyes, only the two Udjat eyes are still to be found diagonally above a standard, which is held by an ibis-headed god turned towards the foot end. The following four other deities, which are oriented in opposite directions, are the human-headed Horus son 'Amset', followed by Anubis, who in turn is associated with the jackal-headed Horus son 'Dua-mut-ef' and finally Thot.

On the 'western' side, can be found a contented Anubis lying on a shrine behind the shoulder area, which again depicts four deities advancing. These are the baboon-headed Horus son 'Hapi', followed by Anubis, as well as the falcon-headed Horus son 'Kebeh-senu-ef' and again a depiction of an ibis-headed god with a standard, who is not identified as Thot in the inscription.

In keeping with Meri.ti's office as priest of Rê the passages quoted from the Book of the Dead also show solar references, since twice the passage 'Life for Rê! Tod der Schildkröte!" is performed twice, which was considered an enemy of the sun god and therefore had to be ritually destroyed. (Friederike Seyfried)

On the 'western' side one finds - fitting in content - after the shoulder part, a supine Anubis on a shrine, which is again depicted with four deities striding towards him. These are the baboon-headed Horus son 'Hapi', followed by Anubis, as well as the falcon-headed Horus son 'Kebeh-senu-ef' and again a representation of an ibis-headed god with standard, which however is not marked as Thot in the inscription.

Text above: Friederike Seyfried

Catalog: Pink Granite, Saqqara (necropolis), ÄM 2/1-2
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Friederike Seyfried at http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




vase
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Vase


Calcite (alabaster) vase with tall foot, globular body, and a high, cylindrical neck and external ledge-rim.

Height 165 mm.

An example similar to EA4555 was found in an 18th dynasty tomb at Sedment (Petrie & Brunton, Sedment II, pl.LVII (254)) along with two cosmetic boxes, calcite kohl-pots, and ceramic vessels.

Catalog: Thebes, EA4555
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




dsc07391clapperssm


dsc07326otherclapperssm


Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 075 BC

Clappers

Catalog: Bone and wood, Thebes, ÄM 9532/1-2, ÄM 8177, ÄM 8179
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Display, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07392mirrorsm
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 075 BC

Mirror

Catalog: Bronze, Thebes, ÄM 2774
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Display, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07328flutessm


dsc07328flutessm


Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 075 BC

Oboe and double clarinet

Tube with papyrus mouthpiece (bronze repair), tube.

Catalog: ÄM 12461/1-2, ÄM 10706
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Display, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_2734teachingsm
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 075 BC

Teaching text

Teaching of a man for his son, with red ink, hieratic. Catalog: Papyrus, ÄM 15338
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




cup
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Cup


Blue glazed composition (faience) drinking-cup, in the form of a stemmed lotus flower. The floral motif, with petals of various sizes, is outlined in black (probably manganese) on the exterior of the vessel.

Height 92 mm, diameter 98 mm.

The lotus motif, and indeed the qualities of faience as a material, were closely linked to rebirth.

Catalog: EA4801
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




tools


Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Agricultural tools


A plow, a hoe, and a sickle with a flint blade.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




plow
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Plow


This plow would presumably have been drawn by oxen. It has been provided with a replacement wooden pole, but is otherwise original.

Catalog: Luxor, wood and bronze, ÄM 13876, ÄM 13687
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




plow
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Plow


Closeup of the plow above.

Catalog: Luxor, wood and bronze, ÄM 13876, ÄM 13687
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07678sicklesm


Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Sickle


Closeup of the sickle above.

( this view allows us to see the groove which originally held a number of flint blades, secured probably by an animal glue, which was widely used in Egypt at the time - Don )

Catalog: Gebelein, wood and flint, ÄM 19475
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia




hoe
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Hoe


Catalog: Qurna, wood, ÄM 7104
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




winnow
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Winnowing basket and two winnowing shovels.


Catalog: From Elephantine, made of wood and palm fibre, ÄM 10773, ÄM 12478, ÄM 13885
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07283seedbagsm
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Seed bag


Catalog: Sedge grass, ÄM 6913
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07644chairsm
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Chair with backrest


Catalog: Wood, ÄM 10748
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07308sandalssm dsc07395sandalssm



18th - 23rd Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 720 BC

Sandals


A pair of sandals with curved tips and footrest.

Circa 1540 BC - 840 BC.

Catalog: Plant fibre and wood, Luxor, ÄM 6931, ÄM 19359
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07309colourfulthongssm

18th - 31st Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 332 BC

Sandals for a child


Catalog: Plant fibre and painted leather, Deir el-Medine, ÄM 10824/1+2
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




box box



Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Chest


Painted sycomore-fig wood chest with four legs. The shape of the chest, with tapering lid, and cavetto cornice, echoes that of a traditional shrine. A knob was provided on the top of the lid, and at the corresponding end of the chest, to allow the chest to be secured with cord and wax (which does not survive on this example).

The painted decoration, with red, white and black colours, may have served to suggest a more elaborate storage container, made form a variety of precious materials (e.g. ivory, ebony).The lid is painted with a single column of hieroglyphic text, which reads 'honoured before Osiris, the sailor (?), Denerg(i), true of voice'.

Houses had distinct areas for men and women and seasonal rooms. Bedrooms were often small rooms in the most private area at the back of the house. Even wealthy homes would have had few pieces of furniture, but their chairs, stools and boxes were made of expensive woods, often lavishly decorated and inlaid with coloured ivory and other precious materials.

This wooden chest was used to store linen, cosmetics, and other personal belongings, and were found in wealthy tombs at Thebes.

Height 250 mm, length 338 mm, width 217 mm.

Catalog: Thebes, EA5907
Photo: (left) Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo: (right) © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




box box



Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Chest


Toilet set, containing cosmetics.

Wooden toilet-chest with lid containing a pottery vessel, two calcite vases, a pumice stone, an ivory comb, a shallow bronze cosmetic-dish, a pair of leather sandals, three fibre jar-lids, a reed double kohl-pot with application stick and an ivory pin.

The box is made around four square-sectioned legs, with glue and tenons used to hold the component pieces of wood together. The front panel, however, was not secured, so could have been removed to allow the contents to be visible.

Inside, pieces of wood have been used to create internal divisions. Three smaller compartments (at the back) each contained a vessel, while the front compartment (running along the width of the box) contained the other items. Wooden knobs attached to the front of the box, and the top of the lid, would have allowed the box to be fastened shut.

Materials: wood, reed , pumice, pottery, leather, ivory, fibre, calcite, bronze.

Height 355 mm, width 343 mm.

Catalog: Tomb of Ani, Thebes, EA24708
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




dsc07645chair dsc07648duckheadchairsm


Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Folding stool


Folding stool with duck heads. The duck heads are stylised, with the beak on the lower rails resting on the floor.

See the image below of a similar folding stool on display at the British Museum.

Catalog: Luxor, Wood, Elephant Ivory, ÄM 12552
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




egyptianstoolsm
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Folding stool


Wooden folding-stool. The well cut and finished base rails are cylindrical and without further decoration. The folding legs each terminate in a head of a duck or goose. These heads are carefully carved, with the eyes and nostrils inlaid with ivory; there are also long thin triangular pieces of ivory inlaid into the neck of the bird. The third part is the seat rails. To these would have been attached a piece of leather to serve as the seat, and many traces of the leather remain on the underside of the rails.

Height 533 mm, width 546 mm.


It is very probable that this stool was found in a tomb, one of the many cleared at Thebes during the 1820s, when Henry Salt or one of his agents would have purchased this piece. The excellent quality of the piece means that it probably came from the tomb of an important and wealthy individual.

Catalog: Thebes, Wood, Elephant Ivory, EA2477
Photo: © The Trustees of the British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




chair
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Chair


A low, straight-backed, chair made from acacia wood, with finely inlaid decoration.The legs take the form of lion legs, though sat upon small cylindrical supports. These legs are attached to the main part of the chair with mortises and tenons, secured by dowels.

The seat of the chair is still partly preserved, with a webbing of woven string.The front side of the chair back is finely decorated, with vertical panels of timber, alternatively darker and lighter in colour, inset to create a decorative frame. The darker timbers have been further embellished with a column of ivory circles leading to small ivory lotus flowers. The reverse of the chair-back does not feature ivory inlays.

Height: 597 mm.


Catalog: Thebes, ivory, fibre, ebony, acacia wood, EA2480
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Bes
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Bes with kohl


Green glazed composition kohl-tube, with details in black, in the form of a squatting Bes figure, holding a large jar before him, in which the kohl would have been kept.

The figure of Bes has pierced ears, suggesting it was once adorned with earrings, and a mane indicated with incised lines. The headdress is now lost, but probably consisted of feathers. He wears a leopard-skin outfit, with details picked out in black paint.

Height 80 mm, length 50 mm.

Catalog: EA65242
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




egypt


egypt


egypt


Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Box in the form of a duck. The two wings act as a lid for the receptacle.


Wood and ivory, length 165 mm, width 65 mm, depth 350 mm.

Catalog: N 1740
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source and text: Louvre Museum, Paris, France



egypt
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC

Box in the form of a duck. The two wings act as a lid for the receptacle.


Carob wood, length 83 mm, width 25 mm.

Catalog: E 219
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Louvre Museum, Paris, France







The Nineteenth Dynasty

1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

The Pharaohs of the 19th dynasty ruled for approximately one hundred and ten years. Seti I's reign is today considered to be 11 years and not 15 years by both J. von Beckerath and Peter Brand, who wrote a biography on this pharaoh's reign. Consequently, it will be amended to 11 years or 1290-1279 BC. Therefore, Seti's father and predecessor would have ruled Egypt between 1292-1290 BC. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes (designated KV). More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website.




Nineteenth Dynasty
Name Horus (Throne) Name Consort Burial Years Dates Comments
Ramesses I Menpehtire Sitre KV16 2 1 292 BC - 1 290 BC  
Seti I Menmaatre (Mut-)Tuya KV17 14 1 290 BC - 1 276 BC  
Ramesses II, Ramses II,
Ozymandias
Usermaatre Setepenre Nefertari
Isetnofret
Maathorneferure
Meritamen
Bintanath
Nebettawy
Henutmire
KV7 66 1 276 BC - 1 210 BC Recalibrated date using a solar eclipse
mentioned in the OT, Joshua 10:12-14
as well as the Merneptah Stele which
mentions a campaign in Canaan in which
Merneptah defeated the people of Israel.
Merneptah Baenre Merynetjeru Isetnofret II KV8 7 1 210 BC - 1 200 BC  
Seti II Userkheperure Twosret
Takhat Tiaa
KV15 6 1 200 BC - 1 197 BC  
Amenmesse Menmire-Setepenre   KV10 3 1 201 BC - 1 198 BC  
Siptah Sekhaienre Meryamun/
Akhenre Setepenre
  KV47 6 1 197 BC - 1 191 BC  
Queen Twosret Sitre Meritamun None KV14 4 1 191 BC - 1 187 BC  


Table of Nineteenth Dynasty Rulers, data chiefly from Wikipedia




 ramesses statues  ramesses statues
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Ramesses I



Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Ramesses IX


Centre and right: Statue of King Ramesses I

Height 2007 mm.

The statue is made from the wood of the sycomore fig and was coated with black bitumen. It is one of two life-size statues found in the tomb of Ramesses I. The king wears the bag-like Khat headdress, and would originally have been depicted holding a staff and a mace. Headdress, kilt and other details were originally gilded over a thin layer of gesso, and the eyes and eyebrows were inlaid.

It can be seen from this statue that it is made from separate pieces, notably the arms and the front of the kilt. It is also likely that gilding was placed over certain parts of the statue, but this was stripped off when the tomb was robbed.

Catalog: EA883


Far left: Statue of King Ramesses IX, (also written Ramses) (originally named Amon-her-khepshef Khaemwaset), 1129 BC – 1111 BC was the eighth king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt.

Statue from Tomb 6 in the Valley of the Kings. This figure is carved from sycomore fig and represents the king wearing the Nemes Headdress. The surface of this statue was finished using less costly materials than that of Ramesses I. Black paint took the place of resin, and polychrome paint was applied instead of gold leaf. The eyes and eyebrows were carved directly from the wood, instead of being inlaid.

Catalog: EA882
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, Wikipedia, http://www.britishmuseum.org/




 dsc06910cultchambersm
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Amenhotep Cult Chamber


Amenhotep was an Ancient Egyptian official and chief physician of the early 19th Dynasty. He is mainly known from his decorated tomb chapel that was excavated in 1913/14 by Ahmed Bey Kamal at Asyut, in Middle Egypt.

Amenhotep held several titles, such as king's scribe, chief lector priest, overseer of wab priests of Sakhmet and chief physician. His wife is depicted in the tomb chapel. She was the songstress of Wepwawet and songstress of Amun-Ra Renenutet. His son Yuny is known from a statue found not far away and was also overseer of wab priests of Sakhmet and chief physician. His grandson Khay also held the latter position.


The tomb chapel of Amenhotep was relatively small, perhaps 300 cm long, 152 cm wide and 240 cm high. The ceiling was vaulted. The walls are decorated with a combination of painted, raised and sunken relief. The workmanship is of highest quality.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Catalog: Valley of the Kings, Thebes West, Limestone, plastered, painted, ÄM 31010/1-4
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia




 dsc06911cultchambersm
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Amenhotep Cult Chamber


On the back wall, Amenhotep is shown twice sitting at an offering table.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Catalog: Valley of the Kings, Thebes West, Limestone, plastered, painted, ÄM 31010/1-4
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia




 dsc06912cultchambersm
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Amenhotep Cult Chamber


On a second, higher register he is shown twice in front of Osiris.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Catalog: Valley of the Kings, Thebes West, Limestone, plastered, painted, ÄM 31010/1-4
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia




 dsc06913cultchambersm
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Amenhotep Cult Chamber


On the right side of the chapel he is again shown in front of Osiris in the judgement scene. On the left wall, Amenhotep and his family are shown guided by Hathor to the sun god Ra and Anubis.

( note that the scene of 'Amenhotep and his family being guided by Hathor to Ra and Anubis' has been attributed to both the right and left wall, depending whether we refer to Wikipedia or the Cleveland Museum of Art. I have been unable to find a plan of the chapel as it was first found. Note also that on the right hand wall of this display, we can see another apparently undescribed, partial panel which clearly shows Anubis weighing the heart of the deceased - Don )


The chapel was found well preserved and even substantial remains of the colouring remained. Today the fragments are in different collections. Substantial parts of the back and the right wall are in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin, the main parts of the left wall are in the Cleveland Museum of Art.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Catalog: Valley of the Kings, Thebes West, Limestone, plastered, painted, ÄM 31010/1-4
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia




 clevelandamenhotepcultchambersm
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Amenhotep Cult Chamber


Tomb Relief of the Chief Physician Amenhotep and Family, circa 1 279 BC - 1 257 BC

Ancient Egyptian medicine was held in high esteem, and doctors made a good living. In this scene, the chief physician Amenhotep leads his family in prayer. Arms uplifted in worship, they all wear the intricately styled wigs and elaborately layered, pleated, billowing linen garments that were the height of fashion during the long and prosperous reign of Ramesses II.

Amenhotep's tomb chapel at Asyut was excavated in 1913-14 by the Egyptian Antiquities Service. Its reliefs are now divided among four cities in three countries. The right side of the wall directly adjoining the Cleveland relief is in Zurich, Switzerland. It shows the goddess Hathor taking Amenhotep by the hand and leading him and his family into the presence of the gods. The other sections are in the Toledo Museum of Art and the Egyptian Museum, Berlin, Germany.


Dimensions: 1280 x 1195 mm

Catalog: Limestone with traces of paint, Egypt, Asyut, New Kingdom, Dynasty 19, reign of Ramesses II, 1279-1213 BC
Credit line: Leonard C. Hanna, Jr. Fund
Source and text: https://www.clevelandart.org/art/1963.100#
Permission: Creative Commons (CC0 1.0)




 DSC00831stelafuneralprocessionsm
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Stela of Neferabu


Relatives of the deceased carrying funerary goods to the tomb, circa 1 250 BC.

Dimensions: Height 175 mm, length 520 mm.


On this fragment of a limestone stela of Neferabu the dead man's sons and other family members are shown carrying boxes, stools, and other items to the tomb.

Neferabet is the owner of TT5. This stela may have come from this tomb or perhaps one of the shrines at Deir el-Medina. There are a number of other stelae and objects from this tomb in the British Museum.

Catalog: Limestone, Deir el-Medina, Luxor (Thebes), EA1754
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/ , © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




 DSC00832plattersm
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Platter


Relatives of the deceased carrying funerary goods to the tomb, circa 1 250 BC.

Dimensions: Height 175 mm, length 520 mm.


On this fragment of a limestone stela of Neferabu the dead man's sons and other family members are shown carrying boxes, stools, and other items to the tomb.

Neferabet is the owner of TT5. This stela may have come from this tomb or perhaps one of the shrines at Deir el-Medina. There are a number of other stelae and objects from this tomb in the British Museum.

Catalog: Limestone, Deir el-Medina, Luxor (Thebes), EA1754
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/ , © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




385 400

Seti
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Seti I


Cast from the Tomb of King Sety I

Valley of the Kings, Egypt

Tomb carved 1 290 - 1 279 BC.

Cast made by Joseph Bonomi 1824 - 1834.

Catalog: Hay Collection AES
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Seti
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Sety I


The sun god sailing through the underworld and bringing new life to the mummified dead, from the tomb of Sety I.

Copy made by Henry Salt (1780 - 1827).

Tomb carved 1 290 - 1 279 BC.

Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Poster, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Seti
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Seti I


King Seti I in front of the God Osiris. Fragment of a pillar. Limestone. New Kingdom. 19th Dynasty. 1290 BC. Grave of Seti I.

Dimensions: 261 x 88 x 47 cm

Seti I (KV 17), Hall J, Pillar B, Side a (Grave)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Catalog: Valley of the Kings, Thebes West, Limestone, plastered, painted, ÄM 2058
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Sandstone stela of Pharaoh Seti I
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Sandstone stela of Pharaoh Seti I (also Sety I), circa 1 310 BC


This fragmentary round-topped stela consists of twelve horizontal lines of text below a main scene. All texts are incised and all figures are in sunk relief. Sety I is shown on the right of the scene with one arm raised and the other holding an incense-burner. In front of him are two altars on which rest water-pots cooled by lotus-flowers. Facing him are Amun-Ra, Min-Kamutef and Isis. This stela has been broken into several fragments and has been restored in modern times. The surviving portions are worn and chipped in places. There are no traces of colour. The hieroglyphs describe Seti's decision to endow the temple at Buhen with offerings, priests and servants.

Height: 1265 mm, width 830 mm.

Condition is fair, though incomplete. This stela has been broken into several fragments and has been restored in modern times. The surviving portions are worn and chipped in places.


Catalog: From Buhen, EA1189
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




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Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabti of Sety I


(left) Acacia wood shabti of Sety I with a lappet-wig, a modelled face and crossed arms, circa 1 294 BC - 1 279 BC.

The leg section is inscribed with five rows of Hieroglyphic text, there are traces of bitumen, and there is an Inscription from the Book of the Dead inscribed on the shabti.

Dimensions: Height 200 mm, width 66 mm, depth 42 mm.

(centre) Acacia(?) wood shabti of Sety I with a lappet-wig, a modelled face and parallel hands. The leg section is inscribed with five rows of Hieroglyphic text from the Book of the Dead, and there are traces of bitumen.

Dimensions: Height 195 mm, width 57 mm, depth 34 mm.

(right) Wooden shabti of Sety I with a lappet-wig, a modelled face and crossed hands; covered in a layer of bitumen, circa 1 294 BC - 1 279 BC.

Dimensions: Height 201 mm, width 60 mm, depth 40 mm.

Catalog: Wood, Biban el-Muluk (Valley of the Kings - Thebes), Tomb of Sety I, EA8575, EA8578, EA15299
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/,© Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




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Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Hathor

Fragment of a stele, prayer before Hathor emblem, circa 13th Century BC.

Catalog: Limestone, Hermupolis, Inv. Nr. 1935.200.220
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




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Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Tutuja

The officer Tutuja in front of Ptah, circa 1 200 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, probably from Memphis, Inv. Nr. 1935.200.207
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




Egypt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Stele of Huy


Stele of Huy, Limestone, possibly from the Sakkara site, circa 1 292 - 1 275 BC.

Huy was a scribe of the treasure house of Pharaoh, presumably in Memphis. On this stone he and his wife worship the god Osiris. On the left his parents and other family members do the same. Among them is included Huy's grandfather, who was still working in the Aten Temple at the time of Akhenaten's revolution. The stele is remarkable for its well-preserved colours.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Additional text: Wikipedia




Pyramidion of PautyPyramidion of Pauty
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Pyramidion of Pauty


On the roof of the burial chapels in Saqqara there is a small pyramid of unbaked clay. Only the spire (pyramidion) is made of natural stone. This copy comes from the grave of the 'king writer' Pauty. One side shows him in adoration for the rising sun (the god Re-Horachte with a falcon head), the other for the setting sun (the god Atum).

Catalog: limestone, Saqqara, circa 1 275 BC, AM 7-c
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2014
Photo (right): Rijksmuseum van Oudheden
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden, http://www.rmo.nl/



Pyramidion of Pauty
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Pyramidion of Pauty


Dimensions: 470 x 470 x 470 mm.

Weight: circa 60 kg.

A pyramidion is the uppermost piece or capstone of an Egyptian pyramid or obelisk. They were called benbenet in the Ancient Egyptian language, which associated the pyramid as a whole with the sacred benben stone. During Egypt's Old Kingdom, pyramidia were generally made of diorite, granite, or fine limestone, which were then covered in gold or electrum; during the Middle Kingdom and through the end of the pyramid-building era, they were built from granite. A pyramidion was covered in gold leaf to reflect the rays of the sun; during Egypt's Middle Kingdom, they were often inscribed with royal titles and religious symbols.


Very few pyramidia have survived into modern times. Most of those that have are made of polished black granite, inscribed with the name of the pyramid's owner. Four pyramidia – the world's largest collection – are housed in the main hall of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Among them are the pyramidia from the so-called Black Pyramid of Amenemhat III at Dahshur and of the Pyramid of Khendjer at Saqqara.

The 19th dynasty (circa Seti I) royal writer Pauty is presumably buried in the Saqqara necropolis as the superstructure of the newlyweds graves there usually contains a small pyramid located at the back of the middle chapel. This clay pyramid is finished with a limestone pyramidion, like the great stone pyramids of the Old Kingdom era of Egypt.

This aspect of the Old Kingdom solar cult was continued in the New Empire, where pyramids have also occurred in a non-royal context ever since. The inscriptions on this copy clarify the association with the solar cult. On the eastern side, Pauty glorifies the rising sun Re-Harakhte, and on the west side, the god Atum, the setting sun on the western horizon. His wife Lyemoenoe is also mentioned. On the north and south side, sacrifices are dedicated to Osiris and Anubis.

Catalog: limestone, Saqqara, circa 1 275 BC, AM 7-c
Photo: Rob Koopman, Wikimedia commons, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license.
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden, http://www.rmo.nl/
Additional text: Wikipedia


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Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Queen Mutnodjmet


Calcite canopic jar of Queen Mutnodjmet. Lid in the form of a human head, with three columns of incised Hieroglyphic text on the body including the cartouche of Queen Mutnodjmet. Circa 1 290 BC.

Queen Mutnodjmet appears to have been buried at Saqqara in the tomb which her husband, King Horemheb, had prepared for himself before his accession to the throne.

Diameter 180 mm, height 410 mm.

Catalog: Calcite, Saqqara, tomb of King Horemheb, EA36635
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




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Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Stele of Patschu


Stele of the Sculptor Patschu with his family.

Catalog: Limestone, Saqqara (?), Inv. Nr. 1935.200.211

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




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Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Relief of Neferher


Catalog: Limestone, Saqqara, Inv. Nr. 1935.200.184

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




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Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Moses


Two relief blocks from the tomb of Moses, circa 1 240 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, Saqqara, Inv. Nr. 1935.200.190
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover








Dating of Egyptian Pharoahs using Astronomical Events



The Egyptians and Assyrians were competent astronomers, and several of their observations have been used to help date various Pharoahs and Dynasties. Pre-telescopic eclipse records are of considerable chronological interest; the total solar eclipse of 15 June 763 BC, for example, was recorded in Assyrian records (Rawlinson (1867) in Humphreys and Waddington (2017)) and is now used as a key fixed point to date Assyrian kings objectively over most of the surrounding three centuries.

Recently a report by Humphreys and Waddington (2017) has allowed the precise dating of Ramesses II, also known as Ozymandias, and as Ramesses the Great.

The researchers write:
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A puzzling event in The Bible that mentions both the Moon and the Sun can be interpreted as describing a solar eclipse. We have dated it to 30 October 1207 BC, making it possibly the oldest datable solar eclipse recorded. The Merneptah Stele mentions a campaign in Canaan in which Merneptah defeated the people of Israel.

This enables us to refine the dates of certain Egyptian pharaohs, including Ramesses the Great. It also suggests that the expressions currently used for calculating changes in the Earth's rate of rotation can be reliably extended back 500 years, from 700 BC to 1200 BC.

The map shows the path of the annular solar eclipse of 30 October 1207 BC, which passed directly over the land of Canaan in the afternoon. The shadow leaves the Earth's surface at sunset over modern day Iraq.

The map is centred on Azekah, which is marked with a circle.




The dates agreed by mainstream Egyptologists for the reign of Ramesses II are c. 1279–1213 BC, with his son Merneptah reigning from circa 1213–1203 BC (Shaw 2003, Horning et al. 2006, Kitchen 2013). These dates are subject to some uncertainty, with the latest possible dates for Ramesses II being 1270–1204 BC, and for Merneptah 1204–1194 BC (Kitchen 2013). The fifth year of Merneptah was therefore probably circa 1209/08 BC, with the latest possible date being 1200/1199 BC.

Thus Ramesses II reigned from 1276-1210 BC, with a precision of plus or minus one year, the most accurate dates available.

The standard Egyptian chronology gives the dates of Merneptah as 1213 – 1203 BC, with the latest possible dates being 1204 – 1194 BC. If the confrontation with Israel was in year 4 of the reign of Merneptah, then his reign would have started in 1211/1210 BC, if in year 3, 1210/1209 BC, and if in year 2, 1209/1208 BC.

Hence we can pinpoint the first year of Merneptah as 1210/1209±1 year. As the length of his reign is known from Egyptian texts, his reign would have lasted between 1210 BC and 1200 BC (with ±1 year in each case). The dates of the previous and subsequent pharaohs can be similarly adjusted; for example, the reign-dates of Ramesses II (Ramesses the Great) would be 1276–1210 BC ±1 year.






 Ramesses II

Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Ramesses II


Statue of Ramesses II

Temple of Khnum, Elephantine, Egypt, Granite

Dynastic rule began in Egypt in around 3000 BCE. Ramesses II was Pharaoh, King of Egypt, between around 1279 and 1213 BCE. He was an extremely successful ruler, presiding over a golden age of prosperity and imperial power across the kingdom. He founded a new capital city in the north called Pi-Ramesses, 'House of Ramesses II' Here he holds a crook and flail and wears a double crown, symbolising his rule over a united country: Upper and Lower Egypt.

Upper part of a red granite colossal statue of Ramses II: the middle part of the statue has not been found, and the left elbow is broken. Aside from the damage to the nose, the sculpture is in good condition and displays very good workmanship. The surfaces are smoothly polished, with the exception of the band on the forehead, the eyebrows, and the cosmetic bands around the eyes, which were left unpolished, probably to facilitate the application of paint.

Catalog: EA67, 1840, 1114.3, Elephantine, Temple of Khnum
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2017
Text: Card, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Exhibition by the British Museum at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra


 Ramesses II
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Ramses II


All the decorated elements of the king's attire are finely chiselled. Ramses II wears a double crown upon a curled wig. The royal uraeus (snake) is fixed at the forehead. A decorated fillet, tied in the back, encircles the wig and ends with two streamers falling on the sides, each supporting a uraeus crowned by the sun disk. A ceremonial beard is attached under the royal chin. A broad collar, fringed by a row of drop-like pearls, surrounds his neck, and a bracelet adorns each of his wrists, the one on the right decorated with an incised 'wedjat' eye, symbol of soundness.

The visage is almost round, with full cheeks. Under the wide forehead, the eyebrows, depicted in raised relief, form two symmetrical arches on the protruding brow-bone. A faint depression separates them from the heavy upper eyelids. The eyes, placed horizontally and framed by cosmetic bands, gaze slightly downward. The narrow root of the nose expands gently toward the base, which is broken. The mouth, slightly slanting, is articulated by well-defined edges. Two little hollows mark the corners of the lips. The rounded chin overlaps the top of the tapering beard. The neck is broad, the chest schematic, with large shoulders. On the arms of the sovereign are engraved his birth and throne names.

Catalog: EA67, 1840, 1114.3, Elephantine, Temple of Khnum
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2017
Text: Card, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Exhibition by the British Museum at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra


 Ramesses II  Ramesses II
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Ramses II


The statue of Ramesses II has two cartouches on the shoulders.
On the left shoulder: 'Ramesses-meryamun - 'Ra is his creator, beloved of Amuni'.
On the right shoulder: 'Usermaatra-setepenra' - 'Strong in Right is Ra, Chosen by Ra'.

The cartouches are surmounted by a double plume flanking a disk, and placed on the hieroglyphic sign for gold. The back pillar bears two vertical columns of a delicately incised hieroglyphic inscription that ends on the lower part of the statue.

Height 1580 mm (including plinth), width 680 mm, depth 520 mm.
Plinth: Height 150 mm, width 520 mm, depth 520 mm.
Weight 495 kilograms.

Catalog: EA67, 1840, 1114.3, Elephantine, Temple of Khnum
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2017
Text: Card, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Exhibition by the British Museum at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra




Titles/epithets include:
Mighty Bull beloved of Maat (Horus Name)
Who protects Egypt and subdues the foreign countries (Two Ladies' Name)
Rich in years and Great of Victories (Golden Horus Name)
'The perfect god, son of Khnum, and born from Anuket, Lady of Elephantine.'

Catalog: EA67, 1840, 1114.3, Elephantine, Temple of Khnum
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2017
Text: Card, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Exhibition by the British Museum at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra


Ramesses II


Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Ramesses II


Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum



Plaster cast of a relief from the temple of Belt el-Wall, Lower Nubia.

The cast depicts a military expedition by Ramesses II (left) and the presentation to the pharaoh of the produce of Nubia and the lands of tropical Africa (right).

On the left, Ramesses II (1279-1213 BC), followed by two of his sons, Amen-her-wenemef and Khaemwaset, is depicted charging against a body of Nubian bowmen, who are shown with black and brown complexions, dressed in leopard skin kilts, and wearing large earrings. A wounded warrior is escorted to a village. On the right, Ramesses II, enthroned beneath a canopy, receives the produce of the southlands, presented by the viceroy Amenemope. These include bags of gold, gold rings, incense, elephant tusks, ebony logs, ostrich eggs and feathers, pelts, bows, hide-covered shields, fans and chairs. The varied selection of live animals includes a lion, giraffe, ostrich, gazelle, leopard, monkeys, antelopes and dogs, as well as oxen with horns artificially deformed and decorated with miniature human heads and hands. Men, women and children are presented as servants and slaves.

The cast was made for Robert Hay by Joseph Bonomi in 1825. The colours were added by Bonomi and are based on the originals as observed by Bonomi and Arundale. The cast was repainted by Douglas Champion in 1952.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Ramses Frieze
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Temple of Beit el-Wali frieze


This is the earliest photograph of the Temple of Beit el-Wali frieze which celebrates the exploits of Ramesses II. It was taken at the very beginning of practical photography, in 1854, on salted paper, from a calotype negative. The original title is 'Bet-Oualli, Sculptures Historiques de la Paroi de Gauche'.

Dimensions: Height 230 mm, width 305 mm.

Photo: John Beasly Greene (American, born France, 1832 - 1856)
Permission: Public Domain
Text: adapted from Wikipedia
Made available by: Google Art Project




Salted paper technique
The salted paper technique was created in the mid-1830s by English scientist and inventor Henry Fox Talbot. He made what he called 'sensitive paper' for 'photogenic drawing' by wetting a sheet of writing paper with a weak solution of ordinary table salt (sodium chloride), blotting and drying it, then brushing one side with a strong solution of silver nitrate. This produced a tenacious coating of silver chloride in an especially light-sensitive chemical condition. The paper darkened where it was exposed to light. When the darkening was judged to be sufficient, the exposure was ended and the result was stabilized by applying a strong solution of salt, which altered the chemical balance and made the paper only slightly sensitive to additional exposure. In 1839, washing with a solution of sodium thiosulfate ('hypo') was found to be the most effective way to make the results truly light-fast.
Text above: Wikipedia

Nefer-Hor and his wife Nefer-Hor and his wife


Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Amenemope / Amenemopet


Seated figure of the foreman of the craftsmen, Amenemope, and his wife Hathor.

Circa 1 280

The royal clerk Amenemope sits on an armchair with lion's feet, while his wife Hathor has taken a lower stool that is padded with a pillow. Under her chair is a monkey eating figs. The inscriptions on the separately worked base and on the backrest have been engraved and filled with a yellowish mass. The texts contain sacrificial prayers.

Dimensions: 330 x 181 x 255 mm.

Catalog: Sethos I, Wood, White putty (hieroglyphs), Deir el-Medine, TT 265 (grave), ÄM 6910
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, F. Seyfried at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




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Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Unknown Officer


Standing-striding figure of an unknown officer with military kilt.

Circa 1 292 BC - 1 279 BC.

Catalog: Seti I / Sethos I (?), Wood, Thebes, ÄM 10269
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Iupa
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Jupa

Block statue of Jupa with shrine of a god (Naos)

Circa 1 260 BC.

Like his father Urkhija / Urkhai who came from Hurru, Iupa / Jupa / Yupa was an army commander and construction supervisor, and was involved at one of the building sites of the newly founded Residence Piramesse, i.e. ' the Great Stable of Ramessu-Meryamum ', according to an account book from the fifth year of Ramesses II, the so-called Paris Leather Roll. Later on during his career, he became not only the Superintendant of the Ramesseum at Thebes, but also Director of the Treasury of the King and Director of the Granaries.

( note the grotesquely large feet and toes of this statue. I feel sure that this cannot be an accident, or poor craftsmanship, but it is difficult to conceive of a rationale for this oddity - Don )

Catalog: Quartzite, ÄM 24022
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: García (2013), http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf


Toes

While researching the statue of Jupa above, I stumbled across this delightful image of the size and arrangement of Western European people's toes, determined by their ancestry. Early Egyptian statues have Egyptian toes, Greek statues have Greek toes, but Roman statues also have Greek toes, since many were copies of Greek originals, or were done in the Greek style. See, for example, the giant foot of Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, as part of the Colossus of Constantine statue - Don 

Photo: http://www.familytree.com/blog/feet-toes/


Setau Setau


Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Setau

Kneeling figure of Setau holding a stela (stelophore)

Circa 1 260 BC.

A stelophore is a type of statue where the the kneeling person has a stele in front of him, holding it in a gesture of worship. They were probably erected in the niches of the pyramidial graves of private tombs.

Setau was the Viceroy of Kush in the second half of Ramesses II's reign. Contemporary records show that Setau served in this position from Year 38 until at least Year 63 of Ramesses II's reign.

Setau was ' a graduate of the royal school ' and already enjoyed an impressive record of royal service which is detailed in a long autobiographical inscription carved at Wadi es-Sebua. The temple of Wadi es-Sebua was built for Ramesses II by Setau around 1236 BC or Year 44 of this pharaoh's reign. Eleven of his stela, now in the Cairo Museum, were found in the courtyard of this temple and make it possible to establish his career and understand the precise duties of a viceroy. Setau states: ' I was one whom his Lord caused to instructed....as a ward of the palace. I grew up in the royal abode when I was a youth...I was provided for with bread and beer from all the royal meals. I came forth as a scribe from the school, I was appointed to be Chief Scribe of the Vizier; I assessed the whole land with a scroll. I was equal to the task. ' Setau was determined to set out his mark in Nubia and records that he: ' directed serfs in their thousands and ten-thousands, and Nubians in hundred-thousands, without limit. I brought all the dues of the land of Kush in double measure. I caused the people to come in submission. Then I was commissioned to build the temple of Ramesses II in the Domain of Amun ( ie. Wadi es-Sebua) ' Apart from the temple of Wadi es-Sebua, Setau also erected another temple at Gerf Hussein on the West Bank of the Nile around Year 45 of Ramesses II. Setau's tomb (TT289) is located in the Dra' Abu el-Naga' area of the Theban Necropolis.

Catalog: Limestone, ÄM 2287
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.aegyptologie.com/
Additional text: Wikipedia


Figurine
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Young woman


Standing figure of a young woman.

Catalog: Wood, Thebes ÄM 8041
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




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Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Five Kings


Relief fragment showing five enthroned kings of the Old Kingdom.


The reconstruction of the ancient Egyptian chronology is mainly based on rare kinglists mostly found in temples. This makes the few lists found in private context, such as this piece which was discovered in a tomb of the New Kingdom in Abusir / Saqqara, all the more significant. Five enthroned kings are depicted, with their names written in cartouches. Of the severely damaged cartouches, only the one in the middle can be deciphered with certainty as the name of king Menkaure, from the Fourth Dynasty.

Catalog: Limestone, Abusir/Saqqara (?), ÄM 1116
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




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Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Ptah-mai


Family group of Ptah-mai, chief of the Wab-priests of Ptah and his wife Hatshepsut.

From the reign of Ramses II, 1 279 BC - 1 213 BC.

Dimensions: 960 x 870 x 775 mm

In addition to temple statues, portraits are still used in the New Kingdom, which were placed in the cult niches of the tomb chapels. Ptahmai was an officer under Ramses II and was given the office of chief priest at the Ptah temple because of his age. To his left is his wife Hatshepsut, a 'singer of Amun', while on the right is his eldest daughter, a 'harem lady of Pharaoh'.

There is also a son between the couple, who is called the 'servant of Pharaoh', and another daughter to the right of the father. She too was a 'singer of Amun' and holds a sistrum in her right hand as a sign of it. She is also the founder of the 'family group'.

Ptahmai is bald, since he is a priest. He wears a pleated apron that extends from the hip to the calf. A sash runs over his left shoulder. He was twice awarded the 'Gold of Bravery' (chains of golden disc beads) by his king. The fat pads below the chest are a status symbol for its high rank.

Only the man's feet are in sandals, all other people are barefoot. The three women are dressed in ankle-length pleated robes and shoulder collars. Voluminous, multi-part wigs frame the faces. Unfortunately, only a little can be seen of the figure of the son. During the 3rd Dynasty and then again in the New Kingdom, it was customary to have the depicted sit on stools, and in the New Kingdom on armchairs with backrests, the structural details of which appear to be sculpted or at least painted on.

The group figure of the Ptahmai has, as is usual for such sculptures, a high backrest, but on both sides of the women at least on the outer sides, stools are depicted as seating furniture in the typical form of the time.

A relief on the back surface of the backrest shows the couple's children sacrificing to their parents. With this sculpture, too, the formal principles of ancient Egyptian panoramas are clearly visible. This explains the overlapping of the wife's right arm, which is placed around the waist of the man, or the daughter's left arm, which rests on the father's left shoulder. Due to the frontal orientation and the axial constraint of the figures, it was not possible to indicate these limbs in their correct proportions ... the figures of this group have empty, expressionless, schematically shaped faces.

From: Finneiser, Klaus, in: Priese, Karl-Heinz (Hrsg.), Ägyptisches Museum Berlin, Museumsinsel Berlin, Mainz 1991, S. 150.

Catalog: Limestone, Necropolis of Saqqara, ÄM 2297
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




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Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Khabekhnet


Chabechnet in front of royal families of the 16th Century BC.

Tomb relief circa 1 210 BC, during the reign of Merneptah, 1 210 - 1 200 BC. See the cast from the Tomb of King Merneptah below.

Khabekhnet was the eldest son of Sennedjem (TT1). He lived during the 19th dynasty when Ramesses II (1 279 - 1 213 BC) was on the throne. His title was 'Servant in the Place of Truth'. He lived in Deir el-Medina and worked in the royal tombs at the Valley of the Kings.

Khabekhnet's house was located in the southwestern part of the village. It stood next to the house of his father Sennedjem. Khabekhnet was buried along with his wife, Sahte, and their family in tomb TT2 above and slightly to the south of his father's tomb.

Khabekhnet's family was as extensive as Sennedjem's family. A stela found in the courtyard of the tomb contains the names of Khabekhnet, his brother Khons and several children: Mose, Anhotep, Amenemheb, Isis and Henutweret.

Davies (1999) suggests that they all were Khabekhnet's offspring.

The relief comes from his tomb. It shows Khabekhnet standing in a gesture of adoration on the right in front of a row of deceased kings. The purpose of this relief might lie in the fact that he could have been responsible for the care of their tombs.

Catalog: TT2, Deir el-Medine, Tomb of Chabechnet, Plaster on limestone, ÄM 1625
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.deirelmedina.com/lenka/NeuesMuseum.html




Seti
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Merneptah


Cast from the Tomb of King Merneptah

Valley of the Kings, Egypt

Tomb carved 1 210 - 1 204 BC

Cast made by Joseph Bonomi 1824 - 1834

Catalog: Hay Collection AES
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




DSC00848vasehandlessm DSC00847vasesm


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Calcite Jars


Calcite storage jars for funerary oils.

1 210 BC - 1 204 BC.

These jars formed part of a cache of 13 calcite vessels discovered near the entrance to the tomb of Merneptah. Some of the jars were inscribed with hieratic texts indicating that they had held oils used at the funeral of the king.

(left) EA55013: Calcite vase, two handles with animal-heads at the base.

Dimensions: Diameter 254 mm, height 324 mm.

(right) EA55012: Bulbous vase of banded calcite, height 299 mm.

Catalog: Calcite, Valley of the Kings EA55013, EA55012
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0,




img_2408motheramenhotepsm dsc06961ahmosenefretarism
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Queen Ahmose-Nofretari


Statue is circa 1200 BC.

Queen Ahmose-Nofretari herself, is from the Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC This statue is, however, from the 19th Dynasty, as a result of posthumous worship.

Height 440 mm.

Standing figure of Queen Ahmose-Nofretari, or Ahmosi Nefertere, mother of King Amenhotep I.


This small wooden figure represents Queen Ahmose-Nefertari (Ahmes-Nefertari / Nofretari). She was the sister and consort of King Ahmose (early 18th dynasty), who ended the domination of the Hyksos in Egypt and founded the 18th dynasty. Ahmose-Nefertari was one of the first 'goddesses of Amun'.

Ahmet-Nefertari and her son Amenhotep I were divinely revered after their death, especially by the craftsmen of the labourers' settlement in Deir el Medina, whom they regarded as their guardian goddess. The sculptor of the figure was 'Pai', who worked as a painter of Amun in Karnak, and who wanted 'a perfect life of health, comfort and daily joy, a beautiful funeral in old age on the western side of Thebes' from the deified queen.

Catalog: Wood, painted, Thebes, ÄM 6908

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Margret Pirzer, https://www.flickr.com/photos/57703761@N06/31075006346




DSC06139horussm
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Horus Stele


Married couple in front of the Horus falcon, circa 1 200 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, provenance unknown, Inv. Nr. 1935.200.218
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




DSC06188treegodsm
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Tree Goddess


Married couple before a tree goddess, early 19th Dynasty.

( This limestone relief was originally painted, and vestiges of paint may be discerned on the piece - Don )

Catalog: Limestone, Abusir (Saqqara?), Inv. Nr. 2933
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




dsc06726horism


dsc06706horism


dsc06724horism dsc06725horism


dsc06727horism dsc06728horism


img_2503horimemphissm img_2504horimemphissm.jpg img_2504horimemphissm.jpg



Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Hori, High Priest


Sarcophagus of Hori, High Priest of Memphis.

Hori was the High Priest of Ptah at the very end of the reign of Ramesses II. Hori succeeded Neferronpet in office. He was a son of prince Khaemwaset and hence a grandson of Ramesses II. Hori had an older brother named Ramesses who had served as Sem priest of Ptah.

Catalog: Sandstone, Memphis, ÄM 87
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia




img_2504horimemphissm.jpg
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Hori, High Priest


It was Hori, however, who would eventually follow in his father's footsteps and become high priest.

Hori also had a sister named Isetnofret. It is possible that Isetnofret married her uncle Merenptah and served as his queen. If so, Hori would have been both a nephew and a brother-in-law to pharaoh Merenptah.


Catalog: Sandstone, Memphis, ÄM 87
Photo: Einsamer Schütze
Permission: GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia




Shabti   of Merenset
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabti of Merenset

Painted wooden shabti of Merenset with a black lappet-wig, a brown modelled face with traced features and a yellow, green and red collar that envelopes the parallel brown hands.

The front of the leg section is inscribed with a column of black painted Hieroglyphs upon a yellow ground outlined in black; the body is white and the back is decorated with a representation of a yellow seed-basket and a red yoke with two pendular nu-pots.

Height 178 mm, width 52 mm, depth 35 mm.

Catalog: EA30803

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Shabti   of Amenmose Shabti   of Amenmose
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabti of Amenmose

Blue glazed composition shabti with anthropoid coffin inscribed for Amenmose: the absence of glaze in the recesses indicates that it was self-glazed. Along the vertical band of the blue coffin, and similarly along the vertical band on the shabti's kilt, the owner's name and titles are painted in black (probably manganese). The style of Amenmes' linen dress, his curled duplex wig, and the position of his hands flat on the skirt date the figure to the Nineteenth Dynasty.

Unlike the coffin, the shabti is not in the shape of a mummy, and does not hold the usual agricultural implements for work in the Underworld. Instead he appears in the dress of daily life, perhaps to signal his rebirth as a 'sah'. Amenmose is equipped for eternity by the protective texts running around his coffin. Four horizontal bands of text, a format introduced in the New Kingdom, wrap around the coffin like mummy bandages and describe Amenmes as revered before a number of gods, including the Four Sons of Horus.

For eternal protection, his image on the coffin holds the 'tyt'-girdle of Isis in his right hand, and the 'djed'-pillar of stability of the god of the Underworld, Osiris, in his left. Nut, the winged goddess of heaven, is painted across the chest of his coffin.

Height 292 mm (coffin), width 112 mm (coffin)
Height 285 mm (coffin lid), depth 125 mm (combined)
Height 228 mm (shabti), width 75 mm (shabti) depth 45 mm (shabti)


Inscription Translation:

Words spoken by the Osiris, fanbearer on the right of the king, royal scribe, overseer of the Shrine [lit.: Great House], overseer of the treasury of the Temple of Amun, Amenmes of Thebes.
Revered before Imsety, the Osiris, overseer of the treasury, Amenmes of Thebes.
Revered before Anubis, foremost of the god's booth, the overseer of the treasury, Amenmes of Thebes.
Revered before Duamutef, the Osiris, overseer of the treasury of Amen, Amenmes of Thebes.
Words spoken: revered before Horus the mighty protector of his father, Amenmes of the Treasury.
Revered before Hapy, the Osiris, Amenmes.
Revered before Anubis the mighty who is in the place of embalming, the Osiris, overseer of the treasury, Amenmes.
Words spoken: revered before Kebehsenuef, (Amen)-mes of Thebes.
Words spoken: revered before Thoth,the seat of Ra, the Osiris (Amen)-mes.
Right line. Words spoken by Nut the great: He is (my) son, (the) Osiris, Overseer of the Shrine [Great House] in the Temple of Amen-mes of Thebes.
Left line. Words spoken by Geb: He is (my) son, the Osiris, Overseer of the Treasury, Amen-mese, (the) offspring of Geb, ruler of the two lands.

Curator's comments: The abundant tomb shabtis of the New Kingdom were often stored in wooden boxes, while other shabtis, of a type in vogue since the end of the Seventeenth Dynasty, were placed in their own miniature anthropoid coffins. Most such shabtis with coffins were made of wood or clay, but this exceptional example, belonging to a man of some administrative status, is in glazed composition.The meaning of this coffined shabti is probably to be distinguished from that of the standard shabti that served until the late New Kingdom as a double of the deceased. Neither figure nor coffin carry the usual shabti agricultural implements nor the typical shabti inscription, Chapter 6 of the 'Book of the Dead'. Since the provenance of these coffined shabtis is generally unknown, determining their meaning is difficult. Some examples have been found as votive deposits.

Catalog: Thebes(?) EA53892
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Sandstone stela of Pharaoh Seti I
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Setau

Sandstone stela of the Egyptian Viceroy of Kush, Setau, from Wadi Halfa, 1200s BC (19th Dynasty).

Abyssinia, or Ethiopia, was known as Kush to the ancient Egyptians.

Setau is shown on the right pouring a libation over an altar and offering incense to the goddess Renenutet, represented as a serpent seated upon a 'neb' basket on a stand.

The cartouche with the name of Ramesses II is inscribed behind the goddess.

Behind her on the extreme left is a cartouche with the prenomen of Ramses II. All figures are in sunk relief and the texts are deeply incised. The relief is well preserved and there are no traces of colour.

Height: 530 mm, width 470 mm, thickness: 155 mm

Catalog: EA1055
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Son of Ramses II Son of Ramses II


Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Khaemwase

Head of a statue of Prince Khaemwase, or Chaemwese, son of Pharoah Ramses II, circa 1 260 BC

Dimensions 250 x 230 x 220 mm

This almost life-size head of a statue probably represents Prince Chaemwese, son of Ramses II, and royal consort Isisnofret. Chaemwese wears a short, straight-edged chin-beard. The face is very full and round, as are other statues, which are certainly assigned to him, show. His eyes appear very small and shown close to the nose, but the mouth is not very wide and is surrounded by nasolabial and mouth folds. The prince's hairstyle is about chin length and forms a straight edge on the forehead.

From the top of the head, a braided plait runs along the right side of the head, which extends beyond the length of the fracture point of the statuary fragment shown here. This braid and the described beard characterise him as a high priest. Chaemwese held the office of the high priest of the god Ptah in Memphis for more than thirty years.

On the left half of the body, Chaemwaset held a divine staff, of which there are remnants, and which extended to the ground. In the British Museum in London (EA947) there is a comparable statue of the prince, with a staff on each side of the body, so the Berlin head can also be reconstructed as a standing figure with a staff.

Catalog: Quartzite, ÄM 13460
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Jessica Jancziak at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Son of Ramses II


Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Khaemwase

Slaughter of cattle from the tomb of Prince Chaemwese, son of Pharoah Ramesses II, circa 1 240 BC

Catalog: Limestone, Saqqara, Inv. Nr. 1935.200.183
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover
Additional text: Wikipedia




Family Group
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Seba


Stela of Seba, scribe of the treasury of the god Ptah, circa 1250 BC.

Catalog: Memphis, Limestone, ÄM 7315

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Sphinx Sphinx
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Sphinx


Sandstone falcon-headed sphinx from the 19th Dynasty, about 1250 BC.

One of a pair of sphinxes found in the Great Hall of the temple of Ramesses II.

Catalog: EA13
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Sphinx
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Sphinx


Sandstone falcon-headed sphinx from the 19th Dynasty, about 1250 BC.

Catalog: EA13
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Shabti   of Djehutymose

Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabti of Djehutymose


Limestone, height 242 mm, Hieroglyphic text on apron and kilt.

The Theban Tomb TT32 is located in El-Khokha, part of the Theban Necropolis, on the west bank of the Nile, opposite to Luxor. It is the burial place of the Ancient Egyptian official, Djehutymose.

Djehutymose (or Tuthmose) was a chief steward of Amun and overseer of the granaries of Upper and Lower Egypt during the reign of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty). His wife Esi (Isis) is shown in the hall and the passage of the tomb.

The British museum image of this shabti, in the online catalog, has printed on its base:

(57341)
Shabti of Thutimes, King's scribe and overseer of the cattle, wearing ordinary costume.

Catalog: EA57341 Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, Wikipedia




Shabti   of Djehutymose

Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabti of Djehutymose


Painted limestone, height 228 mm, ordinary dress.

This shabti shows Djehutymose represented as a living individual, as in a portrait.

Catalog: EA9447
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, Wikipedia




elephant ivory venus
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Female Figurine


Elephant ivory female figurine. Qau & Badari, III:XXXVI, 3f

Ivory female figurine from Qau, Dynasty 19, with no arms and legs below knees missing. Ivory in friable state, face chipped away. Short layered wig carved at side of head on front of figurine.

length 128 mm, width 37 mm

Catalog: III:XXXVI, 3f, U.C. 26084
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Petrie Museum
Text: Card at the Petrie Museum




Paser Paser
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Paser


Sandstone statue of the viceroy Paser presenting a vase with a ram's head, from the 19th Dynasty, about 1250 BC.

From Abu Simbel, the Great Temple.

Found in two pieces in the interior of the temple. Paser, the second viceroy of that name, held office in the middle years of the reign of Ramesses II. He left statues and inscriptions at Abu Simbel and was responsible for repairing structural damage at the Great Temple caused by an earthquake.

Catalog: EA1376
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Henutmehyt Henutmehyt Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Wooden inner coffin of Henutmehyt with gilt and glass decoration from the New Kingdom, Thebes / Luxor.

Henutmehyt was the name of a Theban priestess, of Ancient Egypt who lived during the 19th Dynasty, around 1250 BC. The extensive use of gold, and the high quality and detail of her coffin indicates that Henutmehyt was a wealthy woman. On the front of the coffin are the figures of Isis and Nephthys, the protectors of the deceased.

Height 187 cm, width 46 cm.

Catalog: EA48001
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Closeups, with detail of the wig pattern on the right hand image.

Catalog: EA48001
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, British Museum


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Inner mummy-case (left) and inner coffin (right) of Henutmehyt.

The mummiform inner mummy-case was placed inside the inner coffin, directly over the wrapped body. It comprises a mask made of cedarwood, plastered, gilded and with inlaid eyes, and an openwork cover for the legs, made from the wood of the native sycomore fig.

The cover retains its backing of linen, originally coloured purple. It is decorated with a figure of the goddess Nut and scenes of the deceased adoring deities.

( The reddish colouring of the gold on both parts of the mummy-board may be the effect of the oxidation of impurities in the gold, most likely from copper, although red coloured gold may be created by a mixture of 75% gold and 25% copper, so it may have been deliberate - Don )

Henutmehyt was buried in a set of gilded coffins and a gilded mummy board. A wooden shabti box which was painted with a scene showing Henutmehyt adoring two of the canopic deities and receiving food and wine from the goddess Nut. There were four shabti boxes in total, containing shabtis made of both wood and pottery.

A funerary papyrus was included in her burial as well. The text is Spell 100 from the Book of the Dead and is written rather unusually in red and white ink. The papyrus was placed over the outer wrappings of the mummy. These types of texts became more common after the New Kingdom.

Magic bricks made of unbaked mud must have been placed in niches in the burial chamber. Henutmehyt's magic bricks were well preserved. They supported amuletic figures: a Djed pillar, the figure of Anubis, a wooden mummiform figure, and a reed. The bricks themselves were inscribed with magic spells.

A wooden box, painted black and containing fowl wrapped in linen and meat possibly from a goat may also belong to the funerary equipment of Henutmehyt. The box contains enough food for a meal.

Catalog: EA48001
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt Henutmehyt


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Inner mummy-case of Henutmehyt, showing the complete mummy-case in the photo on the lower left.

Catalog: EA48001
Photo (upper left, centre): Don Hitchcock 2018
Photo (upper right): Google Arts and Culture Project, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Photo (lower left): High resolution stitched image, Don Hitchcock 2018

Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt Henutmehyt


Left: Inner mummy-case and outer coffin of Henutmehyt from the left hand side.

Centre and right: Outer coffin of Henutmehyt shown from the right hand side.

Catalog: EA48001
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, British Museum


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Close up of the face of Henutmehyt on the wooden inner coffin.

Catalog: EA48001
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Close up of the face of Henutmehyt on the inner mummy-case.

As noted above, the reddish colour of the gold may be the effect of tarnishing of impurities in the gold, or it may be deliberate by making a gold alloy with 25% copper.

Catalog: EA48001
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt Henutmehyt


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Gilded outer coffin of Henutmehyt.

The coffins of Henutmehyt, originally placed one inside the other, were all anthropoid (human-shaped). Like tomb-statues, this type of coffin was believed to provide the spirit with a substitute body if the mummy should perish. The physical form, with crossed arms, together with the inscriptions and the figures of protective gods and goddesses all emphasised the identification of the dead person with the god Osiris. The implication was that, like him, they might experience resurrection.

Henutmehyt's outer coffin provides a magnificent idealised image of the dead woman, adorned with her full wig. A collar is spread over the breast, and below it hangs a pectoral (chest) ornament flanked by protective wedjat eyes. The sky-goddess Nut spreads her winged arms protectively across the body, and the hieroglyphic text immediately below invokes her.Vertical and horizontal bands divide the remainder of the lid into compartments which are occupied by figures of the Sons of Horus and the goddesses Isis and Nephthys. Further divine figures are painted along the sides of the coffin.

Height 206 cm, width 59 cm.

Catalog: EA48001
Photo (top three): Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Photo (left): Google Arts and Culture Project, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt


Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Painted wooden shabti-box containing eight painted shabtis (four in each compartment); Hieroglyphic text on sides and top naming Henutmehyt. The scenes on the sides depict Henutmehyt adoring Osiris and three of the sons of Horus.


In this view, Henutmehyt adores Duamutef and Qebehsenuef, two of the sons of Horus ( Imsety on the left and Duamutef on the right - Don ). The scene on the other side shows the deceased offering a tray of food to Hathor of the Sycamore Tree. This is returned by the goddess, who also supplies a libation (liquid offering), symbolic of purification. Henutmehyt wears the flowing robe, long wig and lotus flower that was fashionable when she lived.

Height 345 mm, width 180 mm, length 335 mm.

Catalog: EA41549
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Shabti from the tomb of Henutmehyt.

Catalog: EA41549
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum Text: Card at museum display, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Shabti from the tomb of Henutmehyt.

Catalog: EA41549
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum Text: Card at museum display, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


The complete shabti box and the eight shabti.

Catalog: EA41549
Photo : © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum Text: Card at museum display, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Henutmehyt Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


On the other side of the box she receives food and water from a goddess (probably Nut) in a tree. ( note the difference of opinion by scholars as to the identity of the goddess, and whether Henutmehyt is giving or receiving (or both) food and water - Don )


This box, one of four made for Henutmehyt is in the form of two conjoined shrines, although it contains only one internal cavity. The four sides are inscribed and painted with scenes of a funerary character: on the front, Henutmehyt adores Duamutef and Qebehsenuef, two of the sons of Horus (Imsety and Duamutef on the left and right), and on the back she receives food and water from a goddess (probably Nut) in a tree.

Catalog: EA41549
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Taylor (2010)


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


This image, a version of the vignette of spell 59 in of the Book of the Dead, is common on shabti boxes, perhaps because the shabtis' agricultural labours were a stage in the process of procuring food for the dead.


Early shabtis were stored individually in the tomb inside miniature coffins, but in the New Kingdom these were superseded by specially designed wooden boxes, the shape of which reproduced the form of a shrine. The adoption of this type of container probably reflects the shabti's character as a hypostasis (the underlying or essential part of anything as distinguished from attributes; substance, essence, or essential principle) of its owner, who was supposed to have acquired divine attributes after death. This box, one of four made for Henutmehyt (see cat nos. 15, 38, 54 and 134 ) is in the form of two conjoined shrines, although it contains only one internal cavity.

The four sides are inscribed and painted with scenes of a funerary character: on the front, Henutmehyt adores Duamutef and Qebehsenuef, two of the sons of Horus (Imsety and Duamutef on the left and right), and on the back she receives food and water from a goddess (probably Nut)in a tree. This image, a version of the vignette of spell 59 in of the Book of the Dead, is common on shabti boxes, perhaps because the shabtis' agricultural labours were a stage in the process of procuring food for the dead.

Catalog: EA41549
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Taylor (2010)


The shabti figure emerged as an important item of funerary equipment in the early Middle Kingdom. A spell to activate these images as substitutes to work on behalf of the dead is first attested in the Coffin Texts, as spell 472.

In the New Kingdom this text was incorporated into the book of the dead as spell 6, and was often inscribed on the body of the figure. This group, EA41549, is part of a set of forty shabtis that was provided for the Chantress of Amun, Henutmehyt.

They are typical of their period in representing the owner holding agricultural tools for use in the process of food production in the afterlife. An abbreviated version of the spell is written on the body.

Originally each person possessed only one or two shabtis, but during the New Kingdom the number gradually increased, the forty belonging to Henutmehyt reflect not only this trend, but also her high status.

Text above: Taylor (2010)


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Another shabti box made for Henutmehyt.

This painted wooden shabti-box contained twelve painted shabtis (six in each compartment). There is hieroglyphic text on the sides and top naming Henutmehyt.

Dimensions of the box: Height 350 mm, length 340 mm, width 192 mm, weight 2 kilograms.

Catalog: EA41548
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Shabti box made for Henutmehyt.

During the New Kingdom (about 1550-1070 BC), the number of shabtis to be included in a tomb increased considerably. The miniature coffins in which they had been kept became large boxes, decorated with funerary scenes. One of the scenes on the box of Henutmehyt shows her adoring the sons of Horus, who protected the internal organs of the deceased. This motif is perhaps more suited to the decoration of canopic chests.

Faience is the material most commonly associated with shabti figures, though Spell 6 of the Book of the Dead specifies that they should be made of wood, as these are. Although all the figures are similar, there are small differences in details such as the treatment of the necklaces and bracelets. Some are inscribed with the full version of the spell to activate the figures to carry out agricultural work, while others have only an abbreviated version.


Dimensions of the box: height 350 mm, width 192 mm, length 340 mm, weight 2 kg.

Catalog: EA41548
Photo : © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Another painted wooden shabti-box made for Henutmehyt containing ten shabtis (five in each compartment)

Dimensions of the box: Height 333 mm, length 330 mm, width 173 mm.

Catalog: EA41551
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Painted wooden shabti-box made for Henutmehyt containing ten shabtis (five in each compartment)

This side shows Henutmehyt receiving food and drink from a goddess who stands within the branches of a tree.

Catalog: EA41551
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Painted wooden shabti-box made for Henutmehyt containing ten shabtis (five in each compartment)

( here Henutmehyt is shown in the right hand image adoring Osiris, with Hathor behind Osiris - Don )

Dimensions of the box: height 336 mm, length 342 mm, width 203 mm.

Catalog: EA41550
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


This large black-varnished wooden chest of sycomore fig wood with two lids was made to hold the four canopic jars of Henutmehyt.

The canopic jars contain a bundle of organs within a coffinette.

Height 482 mm (chest), length 432 mm (chest), height 406 mm (each jar)

Catalog: EA51813
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Canopic jars of Henutmehyt.

The canopic jars contain a bundle of organs within a coffinette.

Height 406 mm (each jar)

Catalog: EA51813
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Henutmehyt Poster



Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Text of the poster at left:

New Kingdom, circa 1279 BC - 1213 BC.

Burial assemblage of the lady Henutmehyt

This rich assemblage of objects was found by inhabitants of the Theban West Bank in or before 1904. The majority of the pieces were purchased for the British Museum between 1905 and 1913. From the style of the individual items the burial can be dated to the 19th Dynasty, probably to within the reign of Ramesses II (about 1279-1213 BC).

The inscriptions entitle Henutmehyt 'Lady of the House' (i.e. married woman) and Chantress of Amen-Ra in the temple of Karnak. This was a common title, but Henutmehyt's comprehensive burial outfit, and the fine craftsmanship and rich gilding of her coffins indicate that she was of very high status. The surviving fragments of her mummy indicate that Henutmehyt had a maximum height of 158 cm, and wore her own hair, which was reddish-brown in colour.

Studies of lung tissue from the jackal-headed canopic jar revealed that Henutmehyt suffered from several illnesses including emphysema, indicating that she died at an advanced age. She also suffered from anthracosis (a build-up of carbon deposits in the lung), an ailment prevalent in ancient Egypt, where open hearths polluted the living environment with smoke.

Photo on the poster: Interior of the inner coffin of Henutmehyt showing hair and soft tissue from the mummy.

Photo: Poster, British Museum
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Poster, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Magical Bricks
During the New Kingdom (about 1550-1070 BC), magic bricks with sockets were placed in tombs, in order to protect the deceased from the enemies of the god Osiris. They were positioned at the four cardinal points of the tomb (north, east, south and west). An amulet was set in each socket, standing so it faced the opposite wall. Each brick was inscribed with a portion of Spell 151 of the Book of the Dead. This spell identifies the deceased with Osiris, Isis and Nephthys.

The four sons of Horus offer their protection; the amuletic figures of the magic bricks specifying the ways in which they will defend the deceased from attack. The brick beside the west wall contains a faience djedpillar, representing the backbone of Osiris. It was thus an amulet which promoted stability and endurance. The brick by the east wall is surmounted by a clay figure of the jackal god Anubis. He presided over the mummification process, and protected the necropolis (cemetery). The mummiform figure by the north wall is identified in the spell as a shabti. This amulet offers to perform agricultural tasks on behalf of the deceased. The brick by the south wall contains a reed to hold a torch, burning the path of those who wish the deceased harm.
Text above: Taylor (1999)

Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


All bricks are of unfired clay, only practical when they are in the sealed environment of a dry tomb, not exposed to the weather.

EA41544: Clay magical brick with a reed. Height 40 mm (brick), width 108 mm, length 165 mm. Reed height 195 mm.

EA41545: Clay magical brick with a representation of Anubis. Height 25 mm, width 92 mm, length 145 mm

EA41546: Wooden shabti on a brick, 145 mm high.

EA41547: Clay magical brick with a djed-pillar amulet, height 43 mm (brick), width 95 mm, length 110 mm. Amulet height 58 mm.


Catalog: EA41544, EA41545, EA41546, EA41547
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Sandstone stela of Pharaoh Seti I
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Amunerhatef


Limestone stela of Amunerhatef showing adoration of Osiris.

On this stela from a chapel at Abydos, the god Osiris is depicted seated before a table of offerings. The hieroglyphic text in the lower section contains Amunerhatef's request to the god to provide funerary offerings for his own ka.

(Limestone stela inscribed with 2 registers of hieroglyphs mentioning Imn-r-hat-f, circa 1 250 BC.)

Height: 280 mm, width 190 mm.


Catalog: Abydos, EA345
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Egypt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Rama


The Stele of Rama, Limestone, Thebes / Luxor site, ca 1225 -1200 BC (19th Dynasty)
Rama was the high priest of Amun in the Karnak Temple. He is pictured below left in an attitude of prayer.

Above in the centre are the seated gods Re-Harakhty (with a falcon head, one of the forms of the god Horus) and Osiris. On the far left is the goddess Isis, with the goddess Maat on the far right.

Seated in the middle are the gods Horus (with the head of a falcon) and Anubis (with a jackal head) on the right, with Pharaoh Amenhotep and the queens Ahmes-Nefertiti and Anhotep on the left. These deified rulers were considered the guardians of the Theban cemetery.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Additional text: Wikipedia









Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabti box of Pa-ni-Rutenutet


To store the so-called shabtis, which were included with the deceased in the tomb as his deputies to take over the otherworldly services, wooden boxes were often used. The painted wooden box of Pa-ni-renenutet, in which there were still some shabtis, has a rectangular plan as shown in the series of photographs below. The walls are slightly sloped. Four high partitions are added over the two narrow walls and over the box to divide it into three equal sections. Three domed lids, each with a round knob, can be seen between the four partitions. Three more round buttons are attached to one of the longitudinal walls. They serve to tie and seal the lid. The shape of the shabti box corresponds to three adjacent, Egyptian chapels.

Catalog: Thebes West, Wood, stuccoed, painted, ÄM 733


dsc06903shabtiboxsm
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabti box of Pa-ni-Rutenutet


During the reign of Seti II, 1 203 BC - 1 197 BC.

Dimensions: 360 x 410 x 180 mm.

Depicted on one long side (as at left) of the box is the kneeling, adoring Pa-en-renenutet in front of Re-Harachten and Isis.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: I.Liao




dsc06908shabtiboxsm
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabti box of Pa-ni-Rutenutet


On the other side one can see the deceased kneeling in front of a sacrificial table, who is adoring the enthroned Osiris in the company of Nephthys. ( Nephthys, sister of Isis, can be distinguished by the shallow bowl atop her headdress - Don )

Between the hands of the worshiper in the two scenes, one ivy tendril hangs down, the green colour of which resembles the skin colour of the four deities depicted, and symbolises rejuvenation or resurrection.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: I.Liao




dsc06906shabtiboxsm dsc06907shabtiboxsm
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabti box of Pa-ni-Rutenutet


On one of the short walls, two mummiform sons of Horus are shown below a representation of a jackal lying on a shrine.

(  On the other short wall, the gods Anubis and Horus are shown below a representation of a jackal lying on a shrine - Don )

According to the inscriptions, Pa-ni-renenutet (literally, 'The one belonging to the serpent goddess Renenutet') was a supervisor of the porters in the Amun temple. The mention of Thebes West in an inscription, however, indicates that he may not have worked in the great Karnak Temple in Thebes, but in one of the smaller Amun shrines on the west bank.
(L. Liao)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: I.Liao


Catalog: Thebes West, Wood, stuccoed, painted, ÄM 733
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: I.Liao




img_2783shabtism
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabtis


These are shabtis of the woman Tamit (right lower), the priest Wah-ib-Rê-em-akhet (centre) and Khonsu (left), see larger images below.

Since the Middle Kingdom, small statuettes - mostly in the form of mummies - have been placed in the graves as representatives to meet the needs of the grave owner on the other side. They were the 'answerers' who, according to a death book saying that is often on the front of the statuettes, should respond to divine work requests and carry them out accordingly.

On the right is a Ushabti box with ushabtis made by mass production, from the 26th Dynasty, 746 - 525 BC. Wood, Faience.


Catalog: Wood, Faience and Limestone, ÄM 4652, ÄM 937, ÄM 10193
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia




img_2783shabtism
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabti of Khonsu


The painted shabti of Khonsu / Chonsu, made of limestone, comes from the tomb of Sennedjem (TT 1) in Deir el-Medine. It is mummy-shaped, adorned with a long, black wig and with a wide neck collar with stylized, floral motifs. His arms are crossed over his chest. He holds a hoe and shears in his half-sculpted hands, which are framed with black lines. Additional cords can be seen on the shoulders, which belong to a mesh-like grain sack. Since the New Kingdom, it was customary to give the shabhtis the necessary tools for field work.

In addition, seven lines of hieroglyphic inscription are written in black ink on the mummy-shaped body. The inscription names the official of the Theban necropolis named Chonsu, the son of Sennedjem from the 19th dynasty. Together with other family members, Chonsu was buried in his father's grave.

(I. Liao, via http://www.smb-digital.de/)

( note that there was another Khonsu at much the same time who was First Prophet of Menkheperre (Thutmose III), during the reign of Ramesses II in the 19th Dynasty. He is attested with two wives in his tomb TT31. His first wife Ruia was the mother of the High Priest of Sobek Usermontu and other children. His second wife May was mother to the Stablemaster Usermontu and the Second Prophet of Menkheperre Khaemwaset and others. Khonsu is also the name of the Ancient Egyptian god of the moon. His name means 'traveller', and this may relate to the nightly travel of the moon across the sky - Don )

Limestone, painted.

Dimensions: 235 x 60 x 46 mm.


Catalog: Shabti of Chonsu, Deir el-Medine (Egypt / Upper Egypt / Thebes West), TT 1 (Sennedjem) (tomb), ÄM 10193
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia




img_2783shabtism
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabti of the woman Tamit


Catalog: Wood, painted, ÄM 4652
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc06904shabtism
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabti with a Ba-bird


The Ba-bird was one of the three souls of the deceased.

( note that this is not the standard form for a shabti, although there are remnants of what look like tools in the hands of the person depicted. It looks more like a tiny model of an anthropomorphic mummy case, depicting the deceased being covered/protected by the Ba-bird - Don )

Dimensions: 390 x 105 x 110 mm (including base).

Catalog: Wood, painted, Saqqara (necropolis), ÄM 808
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_2157servantsm img_2158princesssm
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Lady Nehi


Standing-striding figure of Lady Nehi, donated (?) by her husband Khonsu.

( I have been unable to positively identify her husband Khonsu in the literature, it appears to have been a common name at the time - Don )

The statuette of Lady Nehi is one of the most beautiful female figurines in the New Kingdom. She was probably holding a small formal linear bouquet in her left hand. This is lost, as is the lotus flower (or a cloth) which she held in the right. The elongated limbs and the delicate physique show Nehi as a very young woman. She wears a long, narrow, smooth undergarment and over it a kind of pleated coat, which was knotted under the bust and coquettishly covered the left arm. The hairstyle is unusual. Perhaps the statue shows her own shoulder-length hair. Included is a (painted) neck collar and earrings as accessories. The transparent clothing increases the modelling of the body with a fine erotic aura. This sculpture has lost its paint and the original coloured glass inlays for wig, eyes and earrings.

From: Kischkewitz, Hannelore, in: Priese, Karl-Heinz, Egyptian Museum Berlin, Museum Island Berlin, Mainz 1991, p. 152, via http://www.smb-digital.de/


From the reign of Ramses II, 1 279 BC - 1 213 BC.

Dimensions: 24 x 5 x 12 cm

Catalog: Wood, painted, Memphis / Saqqara, ÄM 4651
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc00317funeraryclothsm
Nineteenth/Twentieth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 077 BC

Funerary Cloth


Painted funerary cloth of a woman named Asetnefret.


The dead woman, seated at right, sniffs a lotus flower while receiving a libation from her daughter, who holds the hand of her son Penpara.

Cloths of this type were placed over the breast of the mummy or coffin.

Catalog: Provenance unknown, EA65347
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Djed  pillar
Nineteenth/Twentieth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 077 BC

Djed pillar


From the Valley of the Kings

The Djed pillar embodied the concepts of endurance and stability. It also came to be interpreted as the backbone of Osiris, and was frequently represented in funerary art in place of the god himself.

Catalog: EA2086
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




egypt


egypt


Nineteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 077 BC

Crocodile: the god Sebek-Re


Height 67 mm, length 182 mm, width 60 mm.

Catalog: Tamarisk wood, limestone base, Deir el-Medinah, Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Le Nil, Salle 336, Vitrine 2: le Nil, E 16358
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre, http://metmuseum.org/, http://cartelfr.louvre.fr/cartelfr/visite?srv=car_not_frame&idNotice=19302&langue=fr




img_9939falconsm
Nineteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 077 BC

Faience Canopic Jar lid


Height 120 mm, width 110 mm.

Blue glazed faience falcon-headed Canopic jar lid, depicting Qebhsenuef, with black detail. Circa 1 295 BC - 1 070 BC. Catalog: Faience Canopic Jar lid, Provenance unknown, circa 1 295 BC - 1 070 BC, EA57339
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




DSC00653kingsm
19th - 20th Dynasty, 1 292 BC - 1 077 BC

King wearing the Red Crown


Wooden figure of a king wearing the red crown and a bipartite apron. Left hand raised to hold a missing staff, left foot lost. Painted decoration on top of the plinth. Very worn plaster and resin coating. From the Valley of the Kings.

Dimensions: Height 570 mm, length (plinth) 298 mm, width 135 mm.

A pair of gilded wooden statuettes representing the king wearing the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt was found in the tomb of Tutankhamun. This example probably formed part of a similar pair from the tomb of a later ruler. The outstretched hand probably originally grasped a staff. The figure is made from Tamarisk wood. The base is a 19th century restoration, made from a fragment of ancient wood.

Catalog: wood, plaster, resin, painted, Biban el-Muluk (Valley of the Kings - Thebes), EA11490
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




DSC00629catdeitysm
19th - 20th Dynasty, 1 292 BC - 1 077 BC

Cat Goddess


Wooden figure of a cat headed goddess, Bastet, covered with a bitumenous substance, from the Valley of the Kings.

The legs and left arm are missing.

Dimensions: Height 459 mm, length 100 mm, width 125 mm.

Catalog: Valley of the Kings, EA60254
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




DSC00630lionheadeddeitysm
19th - 20th Dynasty, 1 292 BC - 1 077 BC

Lion Headed Deity


Wooden figure of a lion headed deity.

The base, although made from an ancient wood, is a 19th century restoration.

Wooden figure of a male lion-headed deity; left arm and both feet lost; figure coated in bitumen (now patchy); painted decoration on top of the plinth.

Dimensions: Height: 535 mm, length 312 mm (plinth), width (max) 120 mm.

Catalog: Wood and bitumen, Biban el-Muluk (Valley of the Kings - Thebes), EA60393
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




DSC00631falconheadeddeitysm
19th - 20th Dynasty, 1 292 BC - 1 077 BC

Qebhsenuef


Wooden figure of a mummiform falcon headed deity, Qebhsenuef, on a pedestal, coated in bitumen.

The base, although made from an ancient wood, is a 19th century restoration.

Dimensions: Height: 462 mm, width 43 mm.

Catalog: Wood and bitumen, Biban el-Muluk (Valley of the Kings - Thebes), EA60393
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




DSC00650baboonheadgodsm
19th - 20th Dynasty, 1 292 BC - 1 077 BC

Hapy


Painted wooden figure of a baboon headed deity, Hapy.

The base, although made from an ancient wood, is a 19th century restoration. Arm and leg lost.

Dimensions: Height: 500 mm, length 247 mm, width 114 mm.

Catalog: Painted wood, Biban el-Muluk (Valley of the Kings - Thebes), EA61110
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




DSC06079hathorreliefsm
Nineteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 077 BC

The Seven Hathors


Hathor took many forms and appeared in a wide variety of roles. The Egyptologist Robyn Gillam suggests that these diverse forms emerged when the royal goddess promoted by the Old Kingdom court subsumed many local goddesses worshipped by the general populace, who were then treated as manifestations of her. Egyptian texts often speak of the manifestations of the goddess as 'Seven Hathors', or, less commonly, of many more Hathors - as many as 362. For these reasons, Gillam calls her 'a type of deity rather than a single entity'. Hathor's diversity reflects the diversity of traits that the Egyptians associated with goddesses. More than any other deity, she exemplifies the Egyptian perception of femininity.

Catalog: Red sandstone, Inv. Nr. 1935.200.226
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover
Additional text: Wikipedia




DSC06081hathorsm
Nineteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 077 BC

Hathor


Head of the goddess Hathor.

Catalog: Red sandstone, Inv. Nr. 1935.200.123
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




The Twentieth Dynasty

1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

The Pharaohs of the 20th dynasty ruled for approximately 110 years. The dates and names in the table are mostly taken from 'Chronological Table for the Dynastic Period' in Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill, 2006. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes (designated KV). More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website.

Background

Pharaoh Setnakhte was likely already middle aged when he took the throne after Queen Twosret. He ruled for only around 4 years when he was succeeded by his son Ramesses III. Egypt was threatened by the Sea Peoples during this time period, but Ramesses III was able to defeat this confederacy from the Near East. The king is also known for a harem conspiracy in which Queen Tiye attempted to assassinate the king and put her son Pentawere on the throne. The coup was not successful in the end. The king may have died from the attempt on his life, but it was his legitimate heir Ramesses IV who succeeded him to the throne. After this a succession of kings named Ramesses take the throne, but none would truly achieve greatness.

Tomb robberies

The period of these rulers is notable for the beginning of the systematic robbing of the royal tombs. Many surviving administrative documents from this period are records of investigations and punishment for these crimes, especially in the reigns of Ramses IX and Ramses XI.

Decline

As happened under the earlier Nineteenth Dynasty, this group struggled under the effects of the bickering between the heirs of Ramesses III. For instance, three different sons of Ramesses III are known to have assumed power as Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI and Ramesses VIII respectively. However, at this time Egypt was also increasingly beset by a series of droughts, below-normal flooding levels of the Nile, famine, civil unrest and official corruption – all of which would limit the managerial abilities of any king.

The power of the last king, Ramesses XI, grew so weak that in the south the High Priests of Amun at Thebes became the de facto rulers of Upper Egypt, while Smendes controlled Lower Egypt even before Ramesses XI's death. Smendes would eventually found the Twenty-First dynasty at Tanis.
Text above from Wikipedia.


family tree

Family tree of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, which was the last of the New Kingdom of Egypt, from Wikipedia.



Twentieth Dynasty
Name Horus (Throne) Name Consort Burial Years Dates Comments
Setnakhte Userkhaure Tiy-merenese KV14 3 1 187 BC - 1 186 BC  
Ramesses III Usermaatre-Meryamun Iset
Ta-Hemdjert
Tiye
KV11 31 1 186 BC - 1 155 BC  
Ramesses IV Usermaatre (later Heqamaatre)
Setepenamun
Duatentopet KV2 6 1 155 BC - 1 149 BC  
Ramesses V
Amenhirkhepeshef I
Usermaatre Sekheperenre Henutwati
Tawerettenru
KV9 4 1 149 BC - 1 145 BC  
Ramesses VI
Amenhirkhepeshef II
Nebmaatre Meryamun Nubkhesbed KV9 8 1 145 BC - 1 137 BC  
Ramesses VII
Itamun
Usermaatre Setepenre Meryamun   KV1 7 1 136 BC - 1 129 BC  
Ramesses VIII
Sethhirkhepeshef
Usermaatre Akhenamun     1 1 130 BC - 1 129 BC  
Ramesses IX
Khaemwaset I
Neferkare Setepenre Baketwernel KV6 18 1 129 BC - 1 111 BC  
Ramesses X
Amenhirkhepeshef III
Khepermaatre Setepenre Tyti KV18 4 1 111 BC - 1 107 BC  
Ramesses XI
Khaemwaset II
Menmaatre Setpenptah Tentamun KV4 30 1 107 BC - 1 077 BC  


Table of Twentieth Dynasty Rulers, data chiefly from Wikipedia




Egypt
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Osiris


Painted wooden statue of Osiris, circa 1 170 BC.

The figure depicts the god wearing his characteristic feathered crown and grasping the royal crook and flail sceptres. The green colouring of the skin reflects the god's associations with vegetation as a metaphor for rebirth. This statuette contained the rolled funerary papyrus of the lady Anhai.

Height 635 mm.

When this uninscribed Osiris figure was examined, the funerary papyrus of Anhai (registration no. 1888,0512.222.7) was found in a recess in the base. Figurines of this type are the forerunner of the more common and later Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figures, and take the form of a mummiform figure of the god of the dead; the presence of this deity in the tomb would help ensure resurrection and new life after death.

This example is particularly elaborate and wears the feathered atef crown, a floral collar, and an elaborately decorated red covering on the upper body, with a decorated white covering from the waist down. This bright colouring can also be seen in depictions of Osiris in tomb paintings from the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties. As in many other depictions, Osiris' face is green - the colour of vegetation, another symbol of new life associated with this deity. Some other figurines of this type are painted black, symbolising the fertility of the earth with which Osiris was associated. He carries the crook and flail of kingship.

Catalog: Thebes, EA20868
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Egypt
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Votive stela of Ta


Osiris is shown with a djed-pillar in place of his head. Osiris is the Egyptian god of the afterlife, the underworld, and the dead. The djed-pillar is commonly understood to represent his spine. Circa 1 152 BC - 1 145 BC

Catalog: Painted limestone, Deir el-Medine, ÄM 20989
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
From the excavations of the German Oriental Society in Der el-Medine under the direction of Georg Möller, 1911 to 1913
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia




dsc06618painting_queensm
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Queen Ahmose-Nofretari / Ahmose-Nefertari


Painting from a tomb: Representation of the deified queen Ahmose-Nefertari, circa 1 186 BC - 1 070 BC

Queen Ahmose-Nofretari herself, is from the Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC This painting is, however, from the 20th Dynasty, as a result of posthumous worship.

Ahmet-Nefertari and her son Amenhotep I were divinely revered after their death, especially by the craftsmen of the labourers' settlement in Deir el Medina, whom they regarded as their guardian goddess.

Ahmose-Nefertari wears a flowing, pleated dress, typical in representations of elite women of the Ramesside period (about 1 295 BC - 1 069 BC) rather than the period during which the Queen was alive. On her head she wears the vulture head-dress of the goddess Mut, consort of the god Amun of Thebes, surmounted by a sun-disc and ostrich plumes. The cobra on her crown indicates her royal status. The lotus blossom was often held by deceased women, thought to be representing rebirth. The black colour of Ahmose-Nefertari's skin does not reflect her true coloration, but may symbolise regeneration.


Catalog: Deir el-Medine, Inherkau's tomb, Grave TT 359, Nile mud, stucco, painted ÄM 2060
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Margret Pirzer, https://www.flickr.com/photos/57703761@N06/31075006346, http://www.deirelmedina.com/lenka/TempleAmenhotep.html




dsc06623amenhotepism
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Pharoah Amenhotep I


Painting from a tomb: Representation of the deified pharoah Amenhotep I.

Amenhotep I is shown wearing a blue cap-wig, with a uraeus on its front. It is topped with a sun-disc. Amenhotep holds a crook and a flail, symbols of royalty, in his right hand. He holds an ankh, symbol of life, in his left hand. The king is shown wearing the classic shendjyt-kilt, and a longer see-through linen garment.

Amenhotep I was the second Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. His reign is generally dated from 1 526 BC - 1 506 BC. He was a son of Ahmose I and Ahmose-Nefertari, but had at least two elder brothers, Ahmose-ankh and Ahmose Sapair, and was not expected to inherit the throne. However, sometime in the eight years between Ahmose I's 17th regnal year and his death, his heir apparent died and Amenhotep became crown prince. He then acceded to the throne and ruled for about 21 years.

He inherited the kingdom formed by his father's military conquests and maintained dominance over Nubia and the Nile Delta but probably did not attempt to maintain Egyptian power in the Levant. He continued the rebuilding of temples in Upper Egypt and revolutionised mortuary complex design by separating his tomb from his mortuary temple, setting a trend in royal funerary monuments which would persist throughout the New Kingdom. After his death, he was deified as a patron god of Deir el-Medina.


Catalog: Deir el-Medine, Inherkau's tomb, Grave TT 359, Nile mud, stucco, painted ÄM 2061
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.deirelmedina.com/lenka/TempleAmenhotep.html




DSC06178walltilessm DSC06180walltilessm


DSC06179walltilesm
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Wall tiles


Six fragments of wall tiles.

Ceramic with coloured glazes, circa 1 160 BC.

Catalog: Ceramic with coloured glazes, probably from Medinet Habu (Thebes), Inv. No. 1950.148 a-c, g, f; 1950.149
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




obelisk door lintel
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Hori


Sandstone lintel of the viceroy Hori, a fragment of a large lintel consisting of the torus roll and cornice with incised scenes and texts. In the centre of the lintel are the cartouches of Ramses III. On the left side the viceroy of Kush Hori and the mayor of Buhen, Harmose kneel in adoration.

Several columns of text are inscribed with a prayer to the king on their behalf. The lintel is battered about the edges, with the loss of the upper left corner and the right side which was recovered separately. The surface is worn in places so that the text is difficult to interpret. There are no traces of colour. The Egyptian Viceroy of Kush, Hod, and the mayor of Buhen, Harmose, kneel in adoration. A similar scene would have been carved on the right side.


A portion of the right side of the lintel was discovered separately and is now unlocated (Smith, 2006)

From Buhen, early 1100s BC (20th Dynasty) ( i.e. during the reign of Ramesses III, now thought to be March 1186 to April 1155 BC - Don )

Statements of adoration for the pharaoh are given in the columns of hieroglyphs flanking the royal cartouches.

Height 534 mm, length 965 mm (max).

Catalog: EA66667
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/,© Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia




Sarcophagus of Pharaoh Ramesses III
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Ramesses III


Sarcophagus of Pharaoh Ramesses III, from his tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

Granite, 18 tons. Height 180 cm, length 305cm, width 150 cm.

This pink granite cartouche-shaped box once contained the nest of coffins of Pharaoh Ramesses III. The lid is now in the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge. The outside of the box is engraved with the seventh and eighth chapters of the 'Book of Amduat', and the inside with the first chapter of the 'Book of Gates.' Certain parts of these texts were very carelessly engraved.


Catalog: Sully Rez-de-chaussée Crypte d'Osiris Salle 13, D 1
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/sarcophagus-box-ramesses-iii




Sarcophagus of Pharaoh Ramesses III
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Ramesses III


The decoration of this monolithic cartouche-shaped block is organised around the large winged figure of Isis at the feet of the deceased (on the flat front of the sarcophagus) and that of Nephthys at his head (on the rounded back of the box).

Both long sides are engraved with scenes taken from the "Book of Hidden Chambers" (the Amduat). The decoration begins near the figure of Nephthys at the king's head, with the seventh hour of the Amduat along the right side (looking from the head to the feet), and continues with the eighth hour along the left side.

Around the base of the coffin is the palace façade motif - a relic of Old Kingdom sarcophagi (cf. sarcophagus of Abu Roach, Room 14). The inside of the box features large figures of deities from the first hour of the 'Book of Gates'.


Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/sarcophagus-box-ramesses-iii


Sarcophagus of Pharaoh Ramesses III
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Ramesses III


The Egyptians imagined the sun to travel underground in a boat during the twelve hours of night. The nocturnal sun was represented as a man with a ram's head. Every 'hour' (i.e. every stage of his journey) was marked by a particular event: at the seventh hour, for example (right-hand side of the coffin), the sun confronts the snake Apophis, the 'evil serpent' of Egyptian texts, who tries to stop him on his course.

The sun-god is portrayed armed with knives to destroy him. The left-hand side represents the eighth hour: on the lower register, the creatures of the Underworld are depicted, sitting on the ideogram for fabric (one of the essential funerary offerings). The texts referring to the sun's night-time journey ('Litanies of the Sun', 'Amduat', 'Book of Gates', 'Book of Night', etc.) were composed during the New Kingdom for the exclusive use of the king.

As the pharaoh was associated with the sun god and his perilous journey through the night, the royal tomb featured representations of this recurrent event. After the New Kingdom, some of these texts (especially the Amduat) were also used for the benefit of priests and soldiers who were at the peak of their influence at that time (see the papyri in vitrine 4).


Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/sarcophagus-box-ramesses-iii




Sarcophagus of Pharaoh Ramesses III Sarcophagus of Pharaoh Ramesses III
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Ramesses III


Slapdash work

Only two scenes from the Amduat are illustrated on the sarcophagus of Ramesses III, which is characterised by extraordinary carelessness on the part of the scribe who engraved the introductory text to the seventh hour (to the right of the figure of Nephthys).

The phrases (and even individual words) are cut up into incoherent elements that cannot be understood without referring to the correct version featured in other tombs. This poor reproduction, without subsequent checking, suggests that, in the late New Kingdom, the monarchy was no longer treated with the respect it had once inspired.


Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/sarcophagus-box-ramesses-iii




img_9936coffinettesm
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Sutimose


Canopic Coffinette of Sutimose. Late 20th Dynasty, about 1100 BC.

In place of Canopic jars, the four packages of viscera were sometimes enclosed in sets of miniature coffins. The pharaohs Tutankhamen (circa 1327 BC) and Heqakheperre Shoshenq (circa 890 BC) were provided with visceral coffinettes of gold and silver respectively.

The practice occasionally extended to officials. This painted wood example is inscribed for the treasury scribe of Amun, Sutimose, and contained an embalmed lung.


Anthropoid gessoed wood canopic-coffin; lid originally pegged to box by 4 tenons and decorated with black lappeted wig with banded diadem, broad collar, winged scarab, wedjat-eyes on breast, vertical column of text down front, ground ruled with broad chequer-board pattern in red on yellow.

Box decorated with alternating djed and sa-signs beneath banded edging, winged human-headed bird at head end, djed pillar flanked by imntt-signs at foot; contains embalmed lungs wrapped in fine linen, now stored separately.

Length 295 mm, width 105 mm.

Inscription transliteration: ssh n pr-hdj n pr Imn Swty-ms

Coffin in good condition (damage around tenons, water damage to top of lid). Contents fragmentary.

Catalog: Gessoed wood, probably from Thebes, EA25568
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




DSC00655ramessesixsm
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Ramesses IX



Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Ramesses I


Right: Statue of King Ramesses I

Height 2007 mm.

The statue is made from the wood of the sycomore fig and was coated with black bitumen. It is one of two life-size statues found in the tomb of Ramesses I. The king wears the bag-like Khat headdress, and would originally have been depicted holding a staff and a mace. Headdress, kilt and other details were originally gilded over a thin layer of gesso, and the eyes and eyebrows were inlaid.

It can be seen from this statue that it is made from separate pieces, notably the arms and the front of the kilt. It is also likely that gilding was placed over certain parts of the statue, but this was stripped off when the tomb was robbed.

Catalog EA883


Left: Statue of King Ramesses IX, (also written Ramses) (originally named Amon-her-khepshef Khaemwaset), 1 129 BC - 1 111 BC was the eighth king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt.

Statue from Tomb 6 in the Valley of the Kings. This figure is carved from sycomore fig and represents the king wearing the Nemes Headdress. The surface of this statue was finished using less costly materials than that of Ramesses I. Black paint took the place of resin, and polychrome paint was applied instead of gold leaf. The eyes and eyebrows were carved directly from the wood, instead of being inlaid.

Catalog EA882
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, Wikipedia, http://www.britishmuseum.org/




DSC00640orientalsm DSC00639orientalsm
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Horti


Wooden figure of a squatting deity with head turned and grasping beard in both hands; recess in back with cover now glued in place. Gessoed and painted plinth. Originally covered in resin. Resin surface mostly gone, gesso chipped.

(  this figure is reminiscent of figures from the Orient, it does not seem to be Egyptian in style at all - Don )


Dimensions: Height: 515 mm, width 340 mm, depth 139 mm, weight 3.50 kilograms.

Inscription: Hieroglyphic on base, Hr-ti, P-di-imn-nb-nswt-tawy, or Horti, Padiamunnebnesuttawy.

Catalog: Wood, gesso, resin, painted, Biban el-Muluk (Valley of the Kings - Thebes), Tomb of Ramses IX, EA61283
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/,© Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0









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