Recent additions, changes and updates to Don's Maps

Navigation

Back to Don's Maps

  Mousterian (Neanderthal) Sites Mousterian (Neanderthal) Sites


Kůlna Cave


sveduvcavesm

Kůlna Cave

Photo: Doronenko
Permission: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license


Kůlna Cave forms a massive tunnel on the eastern slope of the Sloupské Valley. The first archaeological excavation was carried out in 1880 by J. Wankel and a year later M. Kříž began extensive excavations, which lasted until 1886. The discovery layer of the Middle Paleolithic was first identified by his successor Jan Knies. In 1943-45 the Nazis converted the entire cave into an aircraft factory. When K. Valoch prepared the terrain for systematic research here in 1959, he had the concrete floor blasted off the entire cave.

It turned out that the lower Middle Palaeolithic layers are almost untouched by older works, albeit interspersed with natural processes. Under the cave there is a system of deep cross chasms, into which the Sloupský river flowed sometimes.

The researches of the Anthropos Institute in the years 1961-1976 brought not only extensive collections of Middle Palaeolithic tools and at the same time the oldest evidence of the settlement of the Moravian Karst, but also the most numerous remains of Neanderthal man in the Czech Republic. The collaboration of many natural scientists has brought a lot of ecological data.

The oldest settlements fall at the end of the penultimate (Risian) ice age, followed by a culture called Taubachien ( Neanderthal, 130 000 to 80 000 BP) with small-scale tools using mostly pebbles as cores, in the warm interglacial. The remnants of the Neanderthals (skull fragment, upper jaw, and 3 milk teeth) come from layer 7a, which belongs to the Micoquian.
Text above: Anthropos Pavilion/Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic and Wikipedia

Location: 49° 24′ 30.81″ N, 16° 44′ 19.79″ E

neandertalremainsbrnoexhibsm


Kůlna Cave (near Sloup, Blansko DIstrict):
1. Maxila fragment.
2. Right parietal bone.
3. Milk teeth.

Švédův stůl Cave :
4. Lower jaw.

Photo: Zde
Permission: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
Source: From a Temporary exhibition 'Welcome to the Neandertals' in the Anthropos Pavilon, Brno.




kulnacaveplanphotosm
Kůlna Cave

a, b – locality of the cave
c – entrance into the cave, the so-called southern entrance
d – schematic profile of the Middle & Upper Palaeolithic layers and the cave area with designated sectors.

Digitised and compiled by P. Neruda.

Valoch (1988)
Proximal source and text: Nerudová et al. (2014)




Kůlna Cave is located 45 km from Brno, on the northern margin of the Moravian Karst. It belongs to the nearby Sloup-Sosuvka cave system, in which Sloupský potok Brook that drains the area currently vanishes.Kůlna is a tunnel-shaped cavern with two entrances, a smaller northern and a large SSW-oriented portal entrance. The cavern is 91 m long, the maximum width is 25 m, and the height is 8 m.
Text above: Neruda (2013)

stratigraphy2centralmagdaleniansm
Stratigraphy in the entrance part of the cave, sector C.

6a to 9: Micoquian

10 to 12a: Taubachian

Photo and text: Valoch (1988)
Proximal source: Neruda (2013)




stratigraphy2centralmagdaleniansm
Stratigraphy in the central part of the cave, sector G1 .

6: Gravettian/Magdalenian

6a to 7e: Micoquian

Photo and text: Valoch (1988)
Proximal source: Neruda (2013)




kulnacoupesm
Ideal stratigraphic sequence of Kůlna Cave.

Photo: Valoch (1989)
Proximal source: Neruda et al. (2015)




neandertalremainsbrnoexhibsm neandertalremainsbrnoexhibsm


neandertalremainsbrnoexhibsm
Points and cuspidate (terminating in a point) sidescrapers.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Originals, Anthropos Pavilion/Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic




dsc00989pointsandsidescraperssm dsc00990pointsandsidescraperssm


Points and cuspidate (terminating in a point) sidescrapers.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Originals, Anthropos Pavilion/Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic




dsc00991transversesidescrapersm dsc00992transversesidescrapersm


Large transverse sidescrapers.

( Transverse in this sense means at right angles to the general shape of the tool, where a single retouched edge lies opposite the butt - Don )

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Originals, Anthropos Pavilion/Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic
Additional text: Klein (2009)




dsc00993bonesm dsc00994bonesm


On numerous broken bones we can see grooves caused by stone tools, probably during quartering and carving of the downed animal or scraping of bones.

In other objects where grooves cannot be explained by some practical activity, we can consider motifs resulting from random or symbolic thought processes.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Originals, Anthropos Pavilion/Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic
Additional text: https://www.ginellames.fr/us/tailler_le_silex/bases_de_la_taille/02_matieres.php


dsc00995antlersm
Reindeer antler with engravings.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Originals, Anthropos Pavilion/Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic




mammothretoucherkulnacave1sm mammothretoucherkulnacave2sm
Retouchers from mammoth tusk.

Left: a thin, convex-concave layer of ivory glued together from four parts. The maximum preserved length and width are 125.3 mm and 44.2 mm, respectively. The thickness of the layer varies from 1.71 to 3.35 mm. Layer 7a1, G2. Micoquian.

Right: a layer of mammoth ivory, with a maximum length of 157 mm and 52.8 mm width. The thickness of the layer varies between 4.1 mm and 4.7 mm. Layer 7a1, sector G3, Micoquian.

Photo: K. Jursa
Source and text: Neruda et al. (2015)




dsc00996handaxesm
Handaxe.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Facsimile, Anthropos Pavilion/Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic




dsc00997coressm
Discoid and prismatic cores.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Originals, Anthropos Pavilion/Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic




dsc00998coresandhandaxesm
Cores and a handaxe.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Originals, Anthropos Pavilion/Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic




dsc00988rockcrystalsm
Tools made of rock crystal, or crystalline quartz.

Rock crystal is not a good material for tools, but it is beautiful. It is very difficult to work with, rock crystal produces chips that cannot be controlled easily and often make step fractures. The Neanderthals of l'Abri des Merveilles at Castel-Merle - Vallon des Roches also made tools of rock crystal.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Originals, Anthropos Pavilion/Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic
Additional text: https://www.ginellames.fr/us/tailler_le_silex/bases_de_la_taille/02_matieres.php




dsc00999taubachiensm dsc01000taubachiensm


Taubachien tools (and cores below) are typically small in size and utilise a diverse range of raw materials.

From layer 11 of the Riss-Würm interglacial, 126 000 BP - 100 000 BP.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Originals, Anthropos Pavilion/Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic
Additional text: Wikipedia




dsc01001taubachien dsc01002taubachiensm


Taubachien tools (and cores right hand image) are typically small in size and utilise a diverse range of raw materials.

From layer 11 of the Riss-Würm interglacial, 126 000 BP - 100 000 BP.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Originals, Anthropos Pavilion/Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic
Additional text: Wikipedia




dsc01003pebblesm
Chipped pebble.

( this may have been used as a knapping tool - Don )

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Originals, Anthropos Pavilion/Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic




dsc01006cavebearpenilebonessm
Fractured, healed, penile bones of cave bears.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Originals, Anthropos Pavilion/Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic




dsc01007oldestsm
The oldest traces of settlement in the Moravian Karst are Levallois flakes, a few retouched tools and cores from layer 14, dated to the end of Riss glaciation, about 130 000 BP.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Originals, Anthropos Pavilion/Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic




cave

Model of Kůlna Cave in the Moravian Karst. Below, the profile of archaeological layers revealed in the cave in 1961 - 1976.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Model and graphics design: Unknown
Source and text: Diorama, Anthropos Pavilion/Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic





Kůlna Cave
Layer Age
1,2 Neolithic 6 000 BP
3,4 Epi-Magdalenian (Azilian) 11 000 BP
5,6 Magdalenian 12 000 BP - 13 000 BP
6b Gravettian 22 000 BP
6c Micoquian 40 000 BP - 45 000 BP
7a Micoquian 50 000 BP
7b Micoquian 50 000 BP
7c,d, 8a Micoquian 50 000 BP
8b,9a Micoquian 60 000 BP
9b Micoquian 70 000 BP
10, 11a-d Taubachian 100 000 BP
12, 13 Taubachian 110 000 BP
14 Old Middle Palaeolithic 120 000 BP



    Layers and ages at Kůlna Cave.

    Extra data on ages from Neruda, Nerudová (2013)

    ( note that there are minor inconsistencies with layer contents and ages between this table from the Brno Museum and the data from Neruda, Nerudová (2013)  - Don )





References

  1. Klein R., 2009: The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins, Third Edition, University of Chicago Press, 22 Apr 2009 - Social Science - 1024 pages
  2. Kozlowski S. et al., 2012: New information from Maszycka Cave and the Late Glacial recolonisation of Central Europe, Quaternary International, 272-273 (2012) 288e296
  3. Kozlowski S., Lozek V., Vlcek E., 2013: Hunters between East and West: The Paleolithic of Moravia, Springer Science & Business Media, 29 Jun 2013 - Social Science - 311 pages
  4. Kříž, M., 1909: Die Schwedentischgrotte bei Ochos in Mähren und Rzehaks Bericht über homo primigenius Wilseri. Verhandlungen der k. k., Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Nr. 10, 217–233.
  5. Neruda P., Nerudová Z., 2013: New data from Micoquian layers of the Kůlna Cave (Czech Republic),Quaternary International (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2013.10.015
  6. Neruda P., Lázničková-Galetová M., 2015: Retouchers from mammoth tusks in the Middle Palaeolithic. a case study from Kůlna Cave layer 7a1 (Czech Republic),Retouching the Palaeolithic: Becoming Human and the Origins of Bone Tool Technology, The Origins of Bone Tool Technologies, Retouching the Palaeolithic International Workshop was held from 21-23 October 2015 at Hannover.
  7. Nerudová Z., Nývltová Fišáková M., Míková J., 2014: Palaeoenvironmental analyses of animal remains from the Kůlna Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic), Quartär 61 (2014) : 147-157, doi: 10.7485/QU61_08
  8. Oliva M., 2017: Švédův stůl v Moravském krasu Geschichte des Neandertalerkiefers aus der Švédův stůl-höhle (Schwedentischgrotte) im Mährischen Karst, Anthropos, ISSN 0323-0570 Acta Mus. Moraviae, Sci. soc. CII: 1, 3–16, 2017
  9. Svoboda J., Sachse-Kozlowska E., 1995: Magdalenian family from the Maszycka Cave. In: Kozlowski, et al. (Eds.), pp. 115-205.
  10. Valoch K., 1988: Die Erforschung der Kulna-Höhle 1961-1976. In: Anthropos, vol. 24 (N.S. 16). Moravské zemské muzeum, Brno.

Back to Don's Maps